chapter 32 packet

weak-willed and tolerant of corruption among his friends
As president, Warren G. Harding proved to be

a weakening of federal regulation and encouragement of trade associations
The general policy of the federal government toward industry in the early 1920s was

organized labor and blacks
Two groups who suffered evere political setbacks in the immediate post-World War I environment were

isolationism and disarmament
Two terms that describe the Harding and Coolidge administrations’ approach to foreign policy are

the allowable ratio of battleships and carriers among the United States, Britain, and Japan
The proposed ratio of “5-5-3” in the Washington Disarmament Conference of 1921-1922 referred to

causing the Europeans to erect their own tariff barriers and thus severely reduce international trade
The very high tariff rates of the 1920s had the economic effect of

took bribes for leasing federal oil lands
The central scandal of Teapot Dome involved members of Harding’s cabinet who

for the federal government to buy up agricultural surpluses at higher prices and sell them
The “farm block’s” favorite solution to the severe drop in prices that caused farmers’ economic suffering the 1920s was

the weakness of profarmer and prolabor Progressive reform
Besides deep divisions whitin the Democratic party, the elections of 1924 revealed

private American bank loans to Germany
The international economic crisis caused by unpaid war reparations and loans was partially resolved by

in the South
Al Smith’s Roman Catholicism and opposition to prohibition hurt him especially

big buisness and efficiency over urban and Catholic values
The election of Hoover over Smith in 1928 seemed to represent a victory of

overexpansion of production and credit beyond the ability to pay for them
One important cause of the great stock market crash of 1929 was

crippling international trade and deepening the depression
The sky-high Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 had the economic effect of

Reconstruction Finance Corporation
The federal agency that Hoover established to provide “pump-priming” loans to buisness was the

Ohio Gang
Poker-playing cronies from Harding’s native state who contributed to the morally loose atmosphere in his administration

Adkins v. Children’s Hospital
Supreme Court ruling that removed workplace protection and invalidated a minimum wage for women

American Legion
World War I veterans’ group that promoted patriotism and economic benefits for frontier servicemen

Five Power Naval Treaty
Agreement emerging from the WAshington Disarmament Conference that reduced naval strength and established a ratio of warships among the major shipbuilding powers

Kellogg-Briand Pact (Pact of Paris)
Toothless international agreement of 1928 that pledged nations to outlaw war

Teapot Dome
Naval oil reserve in Wyoming that gave its name to one of the major Harding administration scandals

McNary-Haugen Bill
Farm proposal of the 1920s, passed by Congress but vetoed by the president, that provided for the federal government to buy farm surpluses and sell them abroad

Dawes Plan
American-sponsored arrangement for rescheduling German reparations payments that only temporaily eased the international debt tangle of 1920s

Fundamentalist Democrats
Southern Democrats who turned against their party’s “wet,” Catholic nominee and voted for the Republicans in 1938

Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Sky-high tariff bill of 1930 that deepened the depression and caused international financial chaos

Black Tuesday
The climatic day of the October 1929 Wall Street stock-market crash

Hooverville
Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom may blamed for their financial distress

Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
Hoover-sponsored federal agency that provided loans to hard-pressed banks and buisnesses after 1932

Bonus Expeditionary Force (BEF)
Encampment of unemployed veterans who were driven out of Washington by General Douglas MacArthur’s forces in 1932

Manchuria
The Chinese province invaded and overrun by the Japanese army in 1932

Black Tuesday
The worst single event of the great stock market crash of 1929

Charles Dawes
Negotiator of a plan to reschedule German reparations payments and Calvin Coolidge’s vice president after 1925

Al Smith
The “Hapy Warrior” who attracted votes in the cities but lost them in the South

Albert B. Fall
Harding’s interior secretary, convinced of taking bribes for leases on federal oil reserves

John Davis
Weak, compromise Democratic candidate in 1924

Harry Daugherty
U.S. attorney general and a member of Harding’s corrupt “Ohio Gang” who was forced to resign in administration scandals

Charles Evans Hughes
Strong-minded leader of Harding’s cabinent and initiator of major naval agreements

Andrew Mellon
Wealthy industrialist and conservative secretary of the treasury in the 1920s

Warren G. Harding
Weak-willed president whose easygoing ways opened the door to widespread corruption in his administration

Henry Stimson
Hoover’s secretary of state, who sought sanctions against Japan for its aggression in Manchuria

Herbert Hoover
Secretary of commerce through much of the 1920s whose reputation for economic genius became a casualty of the Great Depression

Robert La Follette
Leader of a liberal third-party insurgency who attracted little support outside the farm belt

Henry Sinclair
Wealthy oilman who bribed cabinet officials in the Teapot Dome scandal

Douglas MacArthur
Commander of the troops who forcefully ousted the “army” of unemployed veterans from Washington in 1932

Calvin Coolidge
Tight-lipped Vermonter who promoted frugality and pro-buisness policies during his presidency

Weakened labor unions and prevented the enforcement of progressive antitrust legislation
CAUSE AND EFFECT:
Republican probuisness policies

Led to the successful Washington Disarmament Conference and the Five Power Naval Agreement of 1922
CAUSE AND EFFECT:
American concern about the arms race and the danger of war

Sustained American prosperity but pushed Europe into economic protectionism and turmoil
CAUSE AND EFFECT:
The high-tariff Fordney-McCumber Law of 1922

Encouraged numerous federal officials to engage in corrupt dealings
CAUSE AND EFFECT:
The loose moral atmosphere of Harding’s Washington

Drove crop prices down and created a rural economic depression
CAUSE AND EFFECT:
The improved farm efficiency and production of the 1920s

Aroused British and French anger and toughened their demands for German war reparations
CAUSE AND EFFECT:
America’s demand for complete repayment of the Allies’ war debt

Led to a Republican landslide in the election of 1928
CAUSE AND EFFECT:
Hoovers media campaign and Smith’s political liabilities

Plunged the United States into the worst economic depression in its history
CAUSE AND EFFECT:
The stock-market crash

Helped cause the stock-market crash and deepen the Great Depression
CAUSE AND EFFECT:
Domestic overexpansion of production and dried-up international trade

Failed to end the depression but did prevent more serious economic suffering
CAUSE AND EFFECT:
Hoover’s limited efforts at federally sponsored relief and recovery

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