Chapter 29 Review

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Joseph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communist Party after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush all opposition.

Five-Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state. They succeeded in making the Soviet Union a major industrial power before World War II.

Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.

Fascist Party
Italian political party created by Benito Mussolini during World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini’s instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy from 1922 to 1943.

Adolf Hitler
Born in Austria, Hitler became a radical German nationalist during World War I. He led the National Socialist German Workers’ Party—the Nazis—in the 1920s and became dictator of Germany in 1933. He led Europe into World War II.

Nazis
German political party joined by Adolf Hitler, emphasizing nationalism, racism, and war. When Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, the Nazis became the only legal party and an instrument of Hitler’s absolute rule. The party’s formal name was National Socialist German Workers’ Party.

Chian Kai-shek
Chinese military and political leader. Succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang in 1925; headed the Chinese government from 1928 to 1948; fought against the Chinese Communists and Japanese invaders. After 1949 he headed the Chinese Nationalist government in Taiwan.

Mao Zedong
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1976). He led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China (1937-1945). After World War II, he led the Communists to victory over the Guomindang. He ordered the Cultural Revolution in 1966.

Long March
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek. The four thousand survivors of the march formed the nucleus of a revived Communist movement that defeated the Guomindang after World War II.

Stalingrad
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the German army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd.

El Alamain
Town in Egypt, site of the victory by Britain’s Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery over German forces led by General Erwin Rommel (the “Desert Fox”) in 1942-1943.

Pearl Harbor
Naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japanese aircraft on December 7, 1941. The sinking of much of the U.S. Pacific Fleet brought the United States into World War II.

Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.

Hiroshima
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.

Auschwitz
Nazi extermination camp in Poland, the largest center of mass murder during the Holocaust. Close to a million Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and others were killed there.

Holocaust
Nazis’ program during World War II to kill people they considered undesirable. Some 6 million Jews perished during the Holocaust, along with millions of Poles, Gypsies, Communists, Socialists, and others.

Joseph Stalin’s goal was to
turn the USSR into an industrial nation.

Stalin’s First Five-Year Plan stressed
increases in electricity and heavy industries.

The Soviet Union paid for the Fist Five-Year Plan by
squeezing the peasants.

The reaction to collectivization of the better-off peasants, or kulaks, was to
burn their crops and kill their livestock.

Over ______ kulaks were arrested, some were executed, and the rest starved to death in gulags.
8 million

The Nazi takeover of Germany affected Stalin’s Second Five-Year Plan by
Stalin intending to produce consumer goods but decided to produce arms.

An example of Stalinist terror in the 1930s was
the secret police arresting people accused of party disloyalty.

Despite the Stalinist terror, Soviet women
entered jobs and careers previously closed to them.

The stock market crash of 1929 turned into
the deepest, most widespread depression in history.

The result of the Smoot-Hawley tariff in 1930 was
decreased exports and crippled world trade.

The two countries that were particularly hard hit by the Depression were
Japan and Germany.

Nationalists during the Depression yearned for autarchy, which was defined as
self-sufficiency and economic independence from the world economy.

The effect of the Depression on non-industrial nations was
very uneven.

The South African economy boomed during the Depression because
the Depression made gold more valuable.

People were attracted to the messages of the radical politicians after World War I because
they were embittered as a result of World War I and unemployment, and they were bewildered by modernity.

Italy’s fasci di combattimento initially comprised mainly
unemployed veterans and violet youths.

Actions taken by Benito Mussolini were
NOT – he took over the press

The slogan repeated in fascist Italy was
“Il Duce (the leader) is always right.”

Adolf Hitler wrote
Mein Kampf while in jail in the 1920s.

Hitler’s “master race” reserved intense hatred for
Jews.

Hitler’s goal for Germany was to
ALL OF THESE

Hitler’s popularity came in large part from the German people’s belief that
economic well-being outweighed a loss of liberty.

Despite the fact that Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles
neither Britain nor France tried to stop him.

Italy took advantage of democratic weakness in 1935 when
Mussolini invaded Ethiopia.

The major powers at the Munich Conference in 1938
allowed Hitler to annex Czechoslovakian territory.

Account for the British and French policy of appeasement
NOT – their desire to end imperialism

Many Japanese nationalists thought that the answer to the Depression was to
have Japanese colonies.

The Manchurian Incident in 1931 led to
the Japanese takeover of Manchukuo.

Mao Zedong’s variety of Communism was radical departure from the traditional ideology because it
relied on the peasantry.

Mao Zedong’s policies towards women
NOT – he put women in leadership positions

Mao Zedong’s 1934 escape from the Guomindang to Shaanxi was called
the Long March.

Eventually, Japanese leaders realized that the war with China
was a drain on Japanese resources.

At Nanjing, the Japanese troops raped
20,000 Chinese women.

Mao Zedong stopped getting aid from Stalin in 1941 because
Stalin signed a Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact.

The German Blitzkrieg meant, literally
lightning war.

In the early years of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded
Poland and the Baltic States.

The German attack at Stalingrad was important because
it was the key to the Soviet oil supply.

The prime motivation for the Japanese invasion of Southeast Asia was
its abundant oil and rubber production.

On December 7, 1941
Japanese planes bombed the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor.

The key to victory in the Pacific Ocean was
aircraft carriers.

The final defeat of Japan took longer than victory over Germany in large part because
the United States had concentrated its efforts on Germany.

If the allies had agreed sooner to allow the Japanese to retain the emperor
the war might have ended without the use of the atomic bomb.

The Communist Chinese forces defeated the Guomindang largely through
the greed and ineptness of the Guomindang.

Soviet deaths during World War II numbered between
20 and 25 million.

Scientific and technological innovations spurred by World War II
NOT – tanks

The Holocaust is estimated to have killed
6 million Jews.

Nazis murdered in the interest of “racial purity”
NOT – aryans

Result of increased United States production during World War II
NOT – it was doubled that of all the axis nations

One of the most significant long-lasting consequences of World War II in the United States was the
recruitment of women and minorities into the labor force.

The main cause of the environmental stress during World War II was the
economic development that sustained the fighting.

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Joseph Stalin’s goal was to turn the USSR into an industrial nation. Stalin’s First Five-Year Plan stressed increases in …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Stalin’s First Five-Year Plan stressed increases in electricity and heavy industries The Soviet Union paid for the First Five-Year …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Adolf Hitler German dictator during World War II Benito Mussolini Fascist dictator of Italy WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Italy’s fasci di combattimento initially comprised mainly a.radical politicians and hired thugs b.conservative politicians and the military c.disgruntled workers …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Which of the following actions did Japan take in an attempt to recover from the Great Depression? Japan seized …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy The disastrous effects of World War I and the Great Depression led to the rise of totalitarian regimes in …

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