Chapter 26 The Great Depression 1929-1941

Herbert Hoover
President when the stock market crashed in 1929

Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929, the day stock prices crashed

Great Depression
the economic downturn that lasted from 1929 to 1941

Hooverville
the name given to shacks where the homeless lived

on margin
pay only part of the cost of the stock when they make the purchase

bankrupt
unable to pay their debts

relief programs
programs to help the needy

soup kitchen
places where the hungry could get a free meal

public works
projects built by the government for public use

bonus
additional sum of money

List two signs of economic trouble in the 1920s.
Farm and factory overproduction outpaced the ability of consumers to buy the products; the banking system was weak; stock market speculation; production cutbacks leading to wage cuts and firings

What impact did the Depression have on American families?
The depression weakened family ties. Unemployment caused family stresses that led some families to break up. Marriage and birth rates dropped. Parents and children sometimes spent much of their days searching for food.

What was Hoover’s response to the depression and to the Bonus Army?
Hoover was upset by the suffering, but he took no bold action. Eventually, he authorized public works programs and approved the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Later, he ordered the military to drive the Bonus Army out of Washington, D.C.

Franklin Roosevelt
the President who introduced the New Deal during the dpression

Hundred Days
the first three months of FDR’s administration

New Deal
the Roosevelt administration’s plan for dealing with the depression

Civilian Conservation Corps
provided jobs for young men and protected natural resources

National Recovery Administration
was formed to enforce new industry codes

Tennessee Valley Authority
a program to control flooding and provide electricity in in Tennessee and nearby states

polio
A disease caused by a virus.

bank holiday
On his second day in office, Roosevelt closed every bank in the country for four days.

fireside chat
Roosevelt spoke from a chair near a fireplace in the White House.

What issues were responsible for FDR’s victory in 1932?
Americans were angry at Hoover’s inaction. They were intrigued by roosevelt’s confidence, optimism, and promises of aggressive action agains the depression.

What measures did the government take during the Hundred Days to end the depression?
The Emergency Banking Relief Act; the Federal Emergency Relief Administration; the Civilian Conservation Corps

What New Deal measures provided relief for the jobless and promoted recovery from the depression?
The CCC, FERA, WPA, and PWA provided relief. The NIRA, NRA, AAA, REA, and TVA promoted recovery.

What laws were passed to prevent another depression?
Truth-in-Securities Act and FDIC

National Labor Relations Act
protected workers from unfair management practices and guaranteed their right to collective bargaining

Congress of Industrial Organizations
represented workers in whole industries

Social Security Act
set up pensions to support older people, the unemployed, and the needy or disabled

pension
a sum of money paid to people on a regular basis after they retire.

collective bargaining
the process by which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contract.

sitdown strike
stopped all machines and refused to leave the factory

deficit spending
the government was spending more than it took in

national debt
the total sum of money the government owes

How did New Deal critics propose to end the depression?
Huey Long called for heavy taxes on the rich and the use of tax money to provide every family with a house, a car, and a decent income. Francis Townsend wanted everyone over 60 to get a pension of $200 a month.

Why did many people oppose FDR’s court-packing plan?
They saw Roosevelt’s plan as a threat to the constitutional separation of powers.

What New Deal laws dealt with labor reform and social security?
The National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) barred certain unfair management practices. It also guaranteed the right to collective bargaining. The Social Security Act allowed the government to set up pensions for the elderly, unemployed, needy, and disabled.

Was the New Deal good or bad for the country?
Supporters would say that the New Deal brought the nation through the depression, ended the banking crisis, protected farmers, and found work for millions of unemployed. Opponents would say that the New Deal increased the power of government, causing it to intrude into people’s personal lives and threatening personal freedoms.

Dust Bowl
the area in the central Great Plains affected by drought and erosion

Black Cabinet
President Roosevelt’s group of African American advisers

Mary McLeod Bethune
the first African American to head a government agency

Indian New Deal
a series of laws that gave Native American nations more control over their own affairs

John Collier
appointed head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs by President Roosevelt

migrant worker
people who move from one region to another in search of work

civil rights
the rights due to all citizens

What was the Dust Bowl, and what problems did it create for American farmers?
The Dust Bowl was that portion of the Great Plains that suffered from blinding dust storms and severe drought during much of the 1930s. Homes, farm machinery, and fences were buried in dust; farming became impossible because the topsoil had blown away.

What special hardships did women face during the Great Depression?
Homemakers had to stretch family budgets. Many wives encouraged their unemployed husbands to keep their spirits up. Working women found that men were often hired before women.

How did the depression affect African Americans, Mexican Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans?
All faced extra prejudice because white Americans felt insecure during the hard times. Mexican Americans and Asian Americans were often unjustly deported. African Americans, however, were included in the President’s group of advisers, and Native American nations did regain some control over their own affairs.

Laissez Faire the idea that the governmeny can not interfere in the economy Hoovervilles Durring the great depression people lost their homes because they could not afford themand people moved into these. These nieghborhoods were named after President Herbert Hooover …

What years did banks suffer period of “depression” that would in turn continue cycling in a normal pattern? 1819, 1837, 1857, 1873, 1893 Up until 1928, how was the business cycle described? A business boom WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Causes of the Great Depression – Factories and farms produce more goods than people can buy. – Banks make loans that borrowers cannot pay back. – After the stock market crash, many businesses cannot find people who will invest in …

Causes of the Great Depression – Factories and farms produce more goods than people can buy. – Banks make loans that borrowers cannot pay back. – After the stock market crash, many businesses cannot find people who will invest in …

Dow-Jones Industrial Average Average stock prices of major industries Business Cycle Economy grows and contracts WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Sudden fall in stock prices In …

Wall Street Boom rising stock prices had become a symbol of wealth during the 1920s, boom was in full force, stock prices had kept going up, worldwide, stocks doubled in value in a year, millions did invest in boom market …

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