Chapter 26 Apush

Fireside Chats
FDR chats with the people over the radio

Emergency banking Act
Closed the bank for three days

Twenty First Amendment
Alcohol returns

Agricultural Adjustment Act
People paid to not farm

Agricultural subsidies
government pays people to buy food

National Industrial Recovery Act
permitted all workers to join unions of their choice, allowed workers to bargain collectively for wage increases and benefits, allowed workers to go on strike to try to force employers to meet their demands

National Recovery Administration
regulatory businesses must treat workers fairly

Minimum wage
Companies must pay workers a certain amount

Public Works Administration
hiring people to build roads, airports, bridges, etc.

Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
(FDI) A United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks, currently up to $250,000 per depositor per bank

Securities and Exchange Commission
an independent agency of the government that regulates financial markets and investment companies

Government “dole”
a federal aid, first established by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, Roosevelt and Harry Hopkins, the director of the FERA, had misgivings

Work Relief
Roosevelt’s plan to help the unemployed with programs, like the Civilian Conservation Corps, to give needy people government jobs

Civil Works Administration
November 9, 1933- Harry L. Hopkins was put in charge of the organization. The CWA created construction jobs, mainly improving or constructing buildings and bridges. In just one year, the CWA cost the government over $1 Billion and was cancelled. So much was spent on this administration because it hired 4 million people and was mostly concerned with paying high wages.

Civilian Conservation Corps
Offered outdoor work to unemployed single men and indoor work for women

Farm Management Administration
give farmers money to not sell

American Liberty League
A conservative anti-New Deal organization; members included Alfred Smith, John W. Davis, and the Du Pont family. It criticized the “dictatorial” policies of Roosevelt and what it perceived to be his attacks on the free enterprise system.

Dr Francis E Townsend
developed a precursor, give retired people money

Father Charles E Coughlin
wanted silver as currency instead of gold

Huey Long
wanted to redistribute the wealth

Second New Deal
A new set of programs and reforms launched by FDR in 1935

National Labor Relations Board
A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations.

Industrial Unions
Labor organizations of unskilled and semiskilled workers in mass-production industries such as automobiles and mining

Congress of Industrial Organizations
A federation of labor union for all unskilled workers. It provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers.

United Auto Workers
Out of several competing auto unions, this one was gradually emerging preeminent in the early and mid-1930s. But although ot was gaining recruits, it was making little progress in winning recognitions from the corperations. Automobile workers eployed an effective new technique for challenging corperate oppositions: the sit-down strike.

Sit-Down Strike
Work stoppage in which workers shut down all machines and refuse to leave a factory until their demands are met.

Memorial Day Massacre
Happened on Memorial Day 1937 when striking workers gathered for a picnic and demonstration – they were marching toward plant peacefully and police opened fire – 10 killed

Social Security Act
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health

Unemployment insurance
a government program that partially protects workers’ incomes when they become unemployed

Works Progress Administration
New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings.

Election of 1936
FDR (Democratic) reelected b/c of his New Deal programs and active style of personal leadership. Running against FDR was Alf Landon (Republic nominee)

Party Realignment
The displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually during a critical election period

Court-Packing Plan
President FDR’s failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of US Supreme Court Justices from 9 to 15 in order to save his 2nd New Deal programs from constitutional challenges

Recession of 1937
A second period of economic decline during the Great Depression that resulted because FDR had largely stopped spending money and attempted to create a balanced budget, which lessened the effects of the New Deal on the people by laying off many more workers and giving less and less to the people.

Broker State
term for the federal government after the New Deal that describes how the federal government mediates between various interest groups competing for advantages in the national economy

Black cabinet
Group of African Americans FDR appointed to key government positions; served as unofficial advisors to the president.

Francis Perkins
Roosevelt’s Secretary of Labor and first woman cabinet member in U.S. history.

Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR’s Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women

Agricultural Adjustment Act -Helped farmers meet mortgages -Unconstitutional b/c gov was paying farmers to waste 1/3 of there products -Created by Congress in 1933 as part of New Deal -Attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take …

Federal Emergency Relief Act/Admin [FERA] FIRST New Deal; RELIEF. Money to states for direct payments or wages on work projects, direct aid to unemployed, public works. Civil Works Administration [CWA] FIRST New Deal; RELIEF. Provided temporary jobs during the winter …

Election of 1928 Al Smith – Dem Herbert Hoover – Rep Hoover victorious because he was Rep (2 previous Pres. were Rep) Maintain prosperity Farming Crisis Over production Shows hard times on horizon WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE …

The most striking characteristics of the stock market in 1929 was investors’ obsession with speculation By 1932, what percentage of American workers were unemployed? 25 WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY …

Which act or organization barred commercial banks from becoming involved in the buying and selling of stocks? the Glass-Steagall Act The Social Security Act of 1935: included old-age pensions WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

Election of 1932 Hoover vs. FDR 1932 Election: Hoover very little support (rich, volunteerism supporters) balanced budget high tariffs on foreign goods repeal Prohibition – states’ rights (opposite of what he said in 1928) against “drastic” measures WE WILL WRITE …

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