Chapter 25

Greensboro sit-in
-Feb 1, 1960
-4 students from black colleges in Greensboro, North Carolina, sat down at the lunch counter, an area reserved for whites. They did this for five months after which the store agreed to serve black customers at its lunch counters.
-launched social change and political activism as similar sit ins took place for other facilities throughout the south
-ex. of civil rights movements

New left
-student movement
*inspired by civil rights movements

Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
April 1960- Ella Baker called a meeting of young activists in north carolina….out of that gathering came SNCC
-dedicated to replace the culture of segregation with a community of racial justice

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
in 1961 CORE launched the freedom rides.
integrate transportation- their goal

Freedom Rides
-launched by CORE
-integrated groups traveled by bus into the deep south to test compliance with court orders banning segregation on interstate buses and trains and in terminal facilities
-violent mobs assaulted them
*interstate Commerce Commission ordered buses and terminals desegregated

James Meredith
Sep 1962, a court ordered the university of mississippi to admit james meredith, a black student
-the state police stood aside as a mob and rampaged through the streets of Oxford—encouraged by Gov Ross Barnett
-two bystanders lost their lives
– prez kennedy was forced to dispatch the army to restore order
*local authorities resisted civil rights movement

“Letter from Birmingham Jail”
MLK’s most eloquent plea for racial justice
– he related the repetitive series of abuses faced by black southerners, from police brutality to the daily humiliation of having to explain to their children why they could not enter amusement parks or public swimming pools. He declared that the white moderate must put aside fear of disorder and commit himself to racial justice.
*turning point, he said to ministers who said wait and protesters cause violence “do not say protests caused violence or tell us to wait, we have been waiting for years. DO NOT TELL US TO WAIT.”
-april 1963

“Bull” Connor
Police chief of Birmingham who unleashed his forces against black school children that were sent into the streets of Birmingham by MLK.
-the abuse of the children that was broadcasted on TV produced a wave of revulsion throughout the world.
– it led prez kennedy to endorse civil rights movement goals and leading businessmen to end desegregation of town stores and restaurants. as well asa promise that black salespeople would be hired.
– racist

Medgar Evers
june 1963
-a sniper killed Medgar Evers, field secretary of the NAACP in mississippi

Birmingham church bombing
sep 1963
a bomb exploded at a black baptist churd in Birmingham, killing four young girls

March on Washington
August 28, 1963
black and white americans came together on the nation’s capital for the march on washington—considered the high point of nonviolent civil rights movement
-they called for the passage of a civil rights bill and a public works program to reduce unemployment, an increase in the minimum wage, a law preventing discrimination in employment.
– on the steps of the lincoln memorial MLK delivered speech “I have a dream”

John F. Kennedy
served as prez less 3yrs
his administration seen as a moment of youthful glamour
His inaugural address said nothing about segregation or race. —-demonstrated that civil rights was a distraction from his main concern- conduct of the Cold War
-his agenda envisioned new initiatives aimed at countering communist influence in the world

Peace Corps
One of JFK’s acts
– sent young Americans abroad to aid in the economic and educational progress of developing countries and to improve the image of the USA there
-JFK thought way to win cold war

Space Race
Soviets in April 1961 launched a satellite carrying the first man into orbit around the earth, Kennedy announced that the USA would mobilize its resources to land a man on the moon by the end of the decade- accomplished in 1969

-USA wins space race

Fulgencio Batista
Cuban dictator who was taken out of power by a revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro
-when he was in power Cuba was economically dependent on the USA
-right wing dictator; he and his friends owned casinos, restaurants they got money–regular peeps not getting money

Bay of Pigs
Bc of Fidels Castro’s actions, nationalizing american landholding and other investments and signed an agreement to sell sugar to the USSR, the USA suspended trade w/ CUBA.
-SO the CIA began training anti-castro exiled for an invasion of CUBA. The invasion was launched at the Bay of Pigs. but it was a failure and it strengthened Cuba’s ties w/ USSR.
*ex. of USA attemps at getting rid of the Castro gov

Berlin Wall
in August 1961, to stop the growing tide of emigrants fleeing from East to West Berlin, the Soviets constructed a wall separating the two parts of the city.
– Until its demolition in 1989, the Berlin Wall would stand as a tangible symbol of the Cold War and the division of Europe

Cuban Missile Crisis
USA spy planes discovered that the USSR was installing missiles in Cuba capable of reaching the USA with nuclear weapons.
-Kennedy imposed a quarantine of the island and demanded the missiles removal. He said removal missiles or we will send a missile from turkey.
-Nikita Khrushchev agreed to withdraw the missiles; Kennedy pledged that the USA would not invade Cuba and secretly moved American Jupiter missiles from Turkey, from which they would reach the USSR
-in the summer the two countries agreed to a treaty banning the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere and in space

Lyndon Johnson
Was Kennedy’s successor
-he grew up in one of the poorest parts of the usa
-he was more interested than Kennedy in domestic reform, he continued to hold the New Deal view that gov had an obligation to assist less fortunate members of society
-five days after Kennedy’s assassination he called on congress to enact the civil rights bill

Civil Rights Act of 1964
-Congress enacted it in 1964
-it prohibited racial discrimination in employment and privately owned public accomodations. also banned discrimination on the grounds of sex
-many peeps opposed it and prez knew that

-johnson signed civil rights act of 1964
-“we will put the civil rights act in Kennedy’s name”

-johnson needed to replaced white democrats bc they would not vote for him, he needed voters, that is why he did that-

Freedom Summer
the summer of 1964, a coalition of civil rights groups launched a voter registration drive in mississippi. hundreds of white and black college students registering voters in the south,
-an outpouring of violence greeted the campaign
* led to the campaign by the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, James Chaney
in june 1964 three young activists, two white students from the north and one local black youth were kidnapped by a group headed by a deputy sheriff and murdered near philly.
– the death of the two whites now focused attention on Mississippi and on the apparent inability of the federal gov to protect citizens seeking to exercise their constitutional rights

Fannie Lou Hamer *
at televised hearings before the credentials committee, Fannie Lou Hamer of the MFDP held a national audience spellbound with her account of growing up in poverty in the Yazoo Mississippi Delta and of the savage beatings she had endured at the hands of police.
-they said we are the real representatives of the democratic committee
-were not seated and not successful

Barry Goldwater
Johnson’s opponent in the 1964 election
-Senator of Arizona
0he demanded a more aggressive conduct of the Cold War.
-he directed most of his critique against internal dangers to freedom, especially the New Deal welfare state.
-he voted against the civil rights act of 1964
-suffered disastrous defeat

George Wallace
segregationist govenor of alabama
-stands in door of university of alabama to prevent blacks from registering
-he showed in several democratic primaries that politicians could get electoral votes by appealing to white opposition to the civil rights movement
– in election of 64′

Election of 1964
Goldwater- republican
-slogan, “in your hear you know he is right”
-in spire black regestration campaign he wont some states in south
-talked about state’s rights to make their own political decisions
-racist campaign
Johnson- Democrat
-with humphrey

Johnson won

Young Americans for Freedom
– with the founding of YAF, conservative students emerged as a force in politics.
-believed the free market underpinned “personal freedom,” government must be strictly limited and international communism, the greatest threat to liberty must be destroyed
– in 1962 YAF bestowed its freedom award on senator Storm Thurmond of South Carolina, one of the country’s most prominent segregationalists

Selma march
(Jan 1965 MLK launched a voting rights campaign in Selma, Alabama- where only 355 of 15000 blacks had been allowed to vote.)
In March, MLK attempted to lead a march from Selma to Montgomery, the state capital. When the marchers reached the bridge leading out of the city, state police assaulted them with cattle prods, whips and tear gas.

John Lewis
NAACP convention
he said the black democrats that had done everything right, went to the credential committee, registered votes but had the door slammed in the face
-at his speech the black civil rights movement became more millitent

“We Shall Overcome”
in response to the selma march, prez Johnson asked congress to enact a law securing the right to vote for blacks. He closed his speech by quoting the demonstrators’ song “we shall overcome.”
*first big federal gov endorsement to the civil rights movement

Voting Rights Act of 1965
due to prez Johnson’s request and selma issue, congress passed the voting rights act of 1965, which allowed the federal officials to register voters.
-made literacy no longer a requirement- illiterate black southerners could vote

Twenty-fourth amendment
outlawed the poll act, which had long prevented poor blacks and some whites from voting in the south

Hart-Cellar Immigration Act
in 1965 the HC immigration act abandoned the national origins quote system of immigration, which had excluded asians and restricted southern/eastern Europeans.
-it established new, racially neutral criteria for immigration.
-established the first limit on newcomers from western hemisphere, 120,000
– it had an unexpected results as it gave rise to immigration from Latin america, carribean and asia, which immigrant numbers came to outnumber those from Europe

The Great Society
-he declared a war on poverty, said USA too big to have poverty
Prez Johnson’s initiatives of 1965-1967, they provided health services to the poor and elderly in the new Medicaid and Medicare programs and poured federal funds into education and urban development.
-unlike new deal it was a response to prosperity not depression
*represented the most expansive effort in the nations history to mobilize the powers of the national gov to address the needs of the least-advantaged americans

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
was created in prez johnsons presidency-in the great society
expanded the powers of the fed government and completed and extended the social agenda, w/the exception of national health insurance

-congress set up a commission that would allow discriminated peeps of race and sex
-peeps could not discriminate against african americans

provided health services to the elderly
-medical insurance for Americans over 65yrs

provided health services to the poor
-national health insurance to support the poor

National Endowment for the Humanities
was created in prez johnsons presidency-in the great society
expanded the powers of the fed government and completed and extended the social agenda, w/the exception of national health insurance


The Other America
Micheal harrington’s 1962 book the other america revealed that 40-50 million americans lived in poverty
-centerpiece of the great society was to eradicate poverty

War on Poverty
the centerpiece of the great society was to eradicate poverty, launched by johnson early in 1964
-the administration attributed poverty to an absence of skills and a lack of proper attitudes and work habits.
-it did not concentrate on economic aid but on equipting the poor w/skills and rebuilding their spirit and motivation.

war on poverty created VISTA
-a domestic version of the peace corps for the inner cities.
-volunteer and service to rural, native america, AMERICA

Head Start
war on poverty provided head start
-an early childhood education program

Watts uprising
1965, in the black ghetto of L.A. only days after johnson signed the Voting Rights Act. many people took part in this rebellion, attacking police and firemen, robbing white owned businesses and burning buildings. it required many police and national guardsmen to restore order but 35 people died.

Kerner Report
The violence in the urban uprisings led Johnson to appoint a commission headed by illinois gov Otto Kerner to study the cases of urban rioting.
-the report was released in 1968, it blamed the violence on segregation and poverty and offered a powerful indictment of white racism.
-the report failed to offer any clear proposals for change

Malcolm X
he was a fiery speaker
-insisted that blacks must control the political and economic resources of their communities and rely on their own efforts rather than working with whites.
-he dropped his slave surname in favor of “x” symbolizing blacks separation from their african ancestry.
-he became a spokesman for black muslims and a shark critic of the ideas of integration and non violence
-was assassinated in 1965 by members of black muslims or nation of islam bc he formed his own organization of Afro American unity

-he said the only change in north is to burn down the cities-stop segregation in north, forget non violence

Black Panthers
*One of the groups made by SNCC and CORE
-founded in cali in 1966 it became known for advocating armed self defense in response to police brutality.
-the partys youthful members alarmed whites by wearing military garb
-internal disputes and a campaign against the black panthers led by police and FBI destroyed the organization

-only operated in north, was in peeps face

James Baldwin*
author of The Fire Next Time, which gave angry voice to the black revolution
-ex. of how in 1962-63 there was an appearance of books that challenged one or another aspect of the 1950s consensus
–represented another 1960s movement

Rachel Carson
author of Silent Spring, which exposed the environmental costs of economic growth
-ex. of how in 1962-63 there was an apperance of books that challenged one or another aspect of the 1950s consensus
-represented another 1960s movement

Port Huron Statement
The Students for a democratic society (SDS) met at port huron, michigan where they adopted a document that captured the mood and summarized the beliefs of the generation in the 60s of student protester.
-freedom for the new left meant participatory democracy- this became a standard by which students judged existing social arrangements

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
response to the north Vietnamese patrol boat firing at an American spy ship.
-Johnson proclaimed that the USA was a victim of aggression. in response congress passed the GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION.
-authorized the president to take all necessary measures to repel armed attack in vietnam.

In the Vietnam war, USA planes dropped bombs that were filled with napalm at the north and south vietnam.
-napalm is a gelatinous form of gasoline that burns the skin of anyone exposed to it.

-went against view of american soliders; heroes idea crashed

Students for a Democratic Society
an offshoot of the socialist league for industrial democracy
created the port huron statement
-in april 1965, SDS invited opponents of american policy in vietnam to assemble in washington d.c.

became increasingly violent

The Pill
in 1960’s birth controll pills was invented
-revolutionizes younger womens lives
before there was good girl and bad, but when pill comes out all same bc it is liberation
-example of new meaning of freedom in mass culture
-do what you want

The Feminine Mystique
1963 by Betty Friedan
-book about educated women felt trapped in their own homes, marriage and motherhood= goal
-reawakening of feminist consciousness got its start bc of this publication
it had a strong impact on women as Betty Friedan was deluged by desperate letters from female readers relating how the suburban dream had become a nightmare.
-author had written about feminism before regarding equal pay etc.

National Organization for Women
in 1996 the NOW was formed, with Betty Friedan as president.
-modeled on civil rights organizations, it demanded equal opportunities in jobs, education and political participation and attacked the false image of women spread by mass media.

*equal pay for equal boy- their idea/thing

Stonewall Uprising
marked the advent of gay liberation
-1969, a police raid on the stonewall bar in NY’s Greenwhich village, a fathering place for homosexuals. Rather than bowing to police harassment as in the past, gays fought back.
-five days of rioting followed and a militant movement was born.
-they began to say that sexual orientation was a matter or rights, power and identity.

Cesar Chavez
in 1965 Chaves, the son of migrant farm workers and a disciple of king, led a series of nonviolent protests, including marches, fasts and a national boycott of Cali grapes, to pressure growers to agree to labor contracts with the United Farm Workers union.
-the UFW was a mass mvoement for civil rights and a campaign for economic betterment.
-his boycott drew attention to the low wages and oppressive working conditions of migrant laborers. in 1970 major growers agreed to contracts with UFW

Unsafe at Any Speed
related to environmentalism-was the consumer movement spearheaded by lawyer Ralph Nader.

his book Unsafe at any speed -1965- exposed how auto manufacturers produced highly dangerous vehicles.

Nader’s campaign laid the groundwork for numerous new consumer protection laws and regulations of the 1970s.

!environmentalism and the consumer movement called for limiting some kinds of freedom in the name of a grater common good.

Loving v. Virginia
Supreme Court overruled virginia court and declared in loving v. virginia in 1967 unconsitutional the laws still on the books in sixteen states that prohibited interracial marriage.
-case arose from the interracial marriage of richard and mildred loving. barred by virginia law from marrying they did so in washington D.C. and later returned to their home state where 2 wks later the local sheriff entered their house and arrested them.

supreme said “marriage is a civil right, 14th ad requires freedom of choice to marry”

-warren court decisions

NYT v. Sullivan
the ruling in NYT v. Sullivan in 1964 overturned a libel judgment by an Alabama jury against the nations leading newspaper for carrying an ad critical of how local officials treated civil rights demonstrators.
sullivan created the modern constitutional law of freedom of the press.

NYT had run an ad accusing Alabama and Sullivan of discriminatory behavior, Sullivan said I never did that and paper cannot run article saying that i did. The supreme court ruled that the NYT could print whatever it wanted to even though it was false and that criticism of public officials is allowed.

-warren court decisions

Miranda v. Arizona
*obligation of the states to respect the liberties outlined in the bill of rights
-1966 in Miranda v. Arizona it held that an individual in police custody must be informed the rights to remain silent and to confer with a lawyer before answering questions and must be told that any statements might be used in court.

-warren court decisions

-police felt that was tying their hands

Baker v. Carr *
-established the principle that districts electing members of state legislatures must be equal in protection.

*fairness of democratic procedures at the state and local levels

-warren court decisions

Griswold v. Connecticut
*ex. of how the warren court outlined new rights in response to the rapidly changing contours of american society.
-most dramatic was its assertion of a constitutional right to privacy in girswold v. connecticut
-it overturned a state law prohiiting the use of contraceptives
-it extended access to birth control to unmarried adults and later minors

supreme court legalized access to birth control for married women

*warren courts

Roe v. Wade
the girswold v. connecticut decision led to this ruling of the warren court, uses girswold v connecticut, which was the most controversial
-in 1973 it created a constitutional right to terminate a pregnancy, and medical private decision b/w women and doctor

Tet Offensive
january 1968 the tet offensive, in which Viet Cong-enemy- and North Vietnamese troops launched well-organized uprisings in cities throughout South Vietnam-massive attack-, suprising american military leaders.
-chose tet -time bc vietnamese new year

-the intensity of the fighting brought into america’s homes on tv shattered public confidence in the johnson administration, had proclaimed victory to be just around the corner

people had been told by gov that viet cong was weak and could not win any battles against united states, but that was not true – reason why USA got angry
-no American deaths

Eugene McCarthy
an antiwar senator from minnesota, he announced that he would seek the democratic nomination.

in march aided by a small army of student volunteers he recieved more than 40% of the new hamsphire primary vote

Robert F. Kennedy
he was seeking the democratic nomination as an opponent of the war but was assasinated by a young palestinian nationalist in june 1968

wanted to beat lyndon johnson
-he said he wanted out of this war
but was killed in 1968

Richard Nixon
in august nixon won a political comback by winning the republican nomination.
-he called for renewed commitment to law and order
*in the USA instead of radical change the years events opened the door for a conservative reaction

Election of 1968*
Nixon -republican
“law and order”

george wallace- running as an independent and appealing to resentments against black gains, great society programs and the warren court

Nixon won!

Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee Summary: Led by John Lewis, and organized in the fall of 1960 by Robert Moses as a student civil rights movement inspired by sit-ins, it challenged the status quo and walked the back roads of Mississippi …

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Which act or organization barred commercial banks from becoming involved in the buying and selling of stocks? the Glass-Steagall Act The Social Security Act of 1935: included old-age pensions WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

Which act or organization barred commercial banks from becoming involved in the buying and selling of stocks? the Glass-Steagall Act The Social Security Act of 1935: included old-age pensions WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

great drepression Worst __ in American history. It was spurred by the stock market crash of 1929 and lasted until WW II Herbert Hoover …, (1929-1933) The New York Stock Market Crashes October 29, 1929 “Black Tuesday”. The 20th Amendment …

The Great Depression and the economic crisis that ensued discredited supporters of: a) Keynesian economics. b) liberalism. c) unregulated capitalism. d) fascism. e) communism. The New Deal failed to generate: a) Hope. b) Sustained prosperity. c) Jobs. d) Social security. …

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