Chapter 23 Anatomy

Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
Secretions of pepsinogen

Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?
Fungiform and circumvallate

Paneth cells __________.
Secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

Pepsinogen, an inactive digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ___________.
Chief cells of the stomach

Select the best explanation for why protease enzymes are secreted in inactive forms.
The cells producing inactive enzymes are themselves protected from the enzymes until they are safely within the lumen of the GI tract

The function of goblet cells is to _____________.
Produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

Select the correct statement about absorption.
In the rare case that intact, whole proteins are transported across the mucosal endothelium, an immune response may be generated

Hepatocytes do not ____________.
Produce digestive enzymes

A child with restricted tongue movement may have a surgery that involves the cutting of the ___________.
Lingual frenulum

In the enteric nervous system, a long reflexive pathway has an advantage over a short reflexive pathway in the fact that _______________.
Long reflexive pathways can be stimulated by things outside of the GI tract

A doctor consulting a patient that recently has had their gall bladder removed would likely advise _____________.
Eating foods that are low in fat

Bile salts bind at their hydrophobic regions to large fat globules within the chyme that enters the duodenum. Bile salts break up the fat globule into smaller fat droplets. This role of bile salts is best described as _____________.

Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.
There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?

Proteins entering the stomach act as a buffer raising pH. Rising pH stimulates the activity of G-cells in the lining of the stomach. All of the following but one will occur. Select the statement below that would not occur.
A positive feedback response will be initiated and G-cell activity will continue to go up

Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth

The enterohepatic circulation reabsorbs bile salts in the distal portion of the small intestine (ileum). All of the following statements about the enterohepatic circulation are true except one. Select the statement below that is not true of the enterohepatic circulation.
All of the components of bile are recycled by this circulation

Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?
Inferior vena cava

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of _____________.

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ______________.
The vagus nerve and enteric plexus

The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the _____________.
Hepatopancreatic ampulla

The ____________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with machrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.

The lamina propria is composed of ________________.
Loose connective tissue

Which of the following is the best explanation of the benefit in the digestive system having the largest collection of lymphoid tissue (MALT) at the distal end of the small intestine?
The huge numbers of bacteria living in the large intestine must be prevented from entering the lumen of the small intestine and being absorbed with food/nutrients into the blood stream

Which of these is not a component of saliva?

Generally the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin, which are released by duodenal enteroendicrine cells, will
Increase the release of digestive enzymes and bile

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called _____________.

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?

Some antacid drugs block histamine receptors, resulting in reduction of the production and excretion of stomach acid. These drugs have the biggest effect on which of the following?
Parietal cells

A ruptured appendix is life threatening because _____________.
It is likely to cause massive infection of the abdominopelvic cavity

Which of the organs listed below is involved in all of the following processes: secretion, mechanical breakdown of food, digestion, and absorption?
The stomach

Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ____________.
Is longer than the small intestine

Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
Fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates

Which of the following enzymes would be most active in the presence of a high concentration of protein fragments?

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the _____________
Lamina propria

Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.
Bile contains enzymes for digestion

Peristaltic waves are ____________.
Waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
Canine tooth

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up from the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

The sight of food can trigger a series of events that results in the release in the gastric juice. All but one of the following is true in regards to the previous statement. Select the one answer that is not true.
The motor nerves of this pathway are part of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

Which of the following is not true of saliva?

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ____________.
Collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing in the liver

Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge

Select the description below that illustrates a difference between a sphincter and circular muscle.
A sphincter is a thickening of circular muscle that can prevent the movement of digesting materials while circular muscle is involved in propulsion digesting material.

All of the following are true of swallowing (deglutition) except one. Select the statement that is not true of swallowing.
The epiglottis assists in propelling food into the trachea

What part of the tooth bears the force and resists the friction of chewing?

What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
Intrinsic factor

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located _____________.
In the walls of the tract organs

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ______________.

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
Parietal cells

Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include _____________.

Generally the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin which are released by duodenal enteroendocrine cells will _______________.
Slow the activities of the stomach

Select the one response below that would not result from a drug that blocks histamine receptors in the cells lining the stomach.
It would cause the release of secretin and cholecystokinin

Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.
Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum

The bolus is liquefied in the ______________ and it is now called chyme.

The solutes contained in saliva include ________________.
Electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
Villi and microvilli

Which of the following is least involved in the mechanical breakdown of food, digestion, or absorption of nutrients?
The esophagus

The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ______________.

All but one of the following is a function of the low pH found in the stomach. Select the description below that does not reflect a role of stomach acid.
The stomach’s acid catabolically breaks down food stuffs in preparation for absorption

Chief cells ___________.
Produce pepsinogen

Digestion and absorption of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?

Which of the following are not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion?

Fat absorbed through the plasma membrane of epithelial cells ______________,
Occurs by simple diffusion because lipids are able to penetrate the hydrophobic fatty acid trails within the plasma membrane

Which of the following is the best illustration of the difference between metabolism and digestion?
Metabolism comprises all of the chemical reactions performed within the body while digestion is only the breakdown of food within the G.I. tract

Mucosa Layer LAYERS: Surface Epithelium Lamina Propria Muscularis Mucosae FUNCTIONS: Protection, Absorption, & Secretion Submucosa Layer LAYERS: (Connective Tissue; Blood; Lymph) FUNCTIONS: Nutrition & Protection WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY …

stomach The churning action of the stomach muscles physically breaks down the food. The stomach releases acids and enzymes for the chemical breakdown of food. The enzyme pepsin is responsible for protein breakdown. pancreas Enzymes, or digestive juices, produced by …

DJI Duodenum, Jejunum, Ilium Pathway food travels in digestive system: Mouth, Esophagus, crop, Proventriculus, Gizzard, Duodenal Loop, Small Intestine, Ceca, Large Intestine, Cloaca, Vent WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE …

Digestive System “The function of which is to change complex organic nutrient molucules into simple orgsnic and inorganic molecules that can be absorbed into blood snd lymph to be transported to cells. Divisions of the Digestive System Alimentary Tube and …

In order to prevent self-digestion of the pancreas activation of pancreatic proteases occurs in the Duodenum During deglutition, the bolus passes into the stomach from the esophagus through the gastroesophageal sphincter. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

what is taking in food/ nutrients for the body? ingestion (eating) what is the smooth muscle movement that moves food along the digestive tract? peristalsis WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY …

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