Chapter 23 A.P.

1. Despite his status as a military hero, General Ulysses S. Grant proved to be a weak political leader because he
(A) was personally honest and corrupt.
(B) did not believe in the principles of the Republican party.
(C) was unable to get others to follow his lead.
(D) had no political experience and was a poor judge of character.
(E) lacked political ambition.

2. Which political emotion motivated the Liberal Republican revolt from the regular Republican party in 1872?
(A) Dismay at the Republicans’ weakness in upholding radical Reconstruction in the South
(B) Nostalgia for leadership like that of the martyred Abraham Lincoln
(C) Disgust at the corruption and scandals of the Grant administration
(D) A fervent passion for reforms on behalf of women and blacks
(E) A desire to strengthen the federal government’s regulation of big business

3. All of the following were causes of the panic that broke in 1873 in the United States EXCEPT
(A) a ripple effect from similar, simultaneous economic panics in Europe and the world.
(B) the expansion of more factories, railroads, and mines than existing markets would bear.
(C) bank failures resulting from imprudent financial loans made by bankers in support of questionable business ventures.
(D) the loss of substantial financial investments by speculators in dubious and unsustainable business ventures.
(E) Wall Street’s fears about the power of the radical Greenback party.

4. What was a key result of the Republican hard money policies in the mid-1870s?
(A) The rise of the American dollar against foreign currencies
(B) Damage to the country’s credit rating
(C) The return to the silver “Dollar of Our Daddies” as the dominant form of U.S. money
(D) The defeat of a Democratic House of Representatives in 1874
(E) A political turn to the Democrats and the new Greenback Labor party

5. Which development was a critical reason for the extremely high voter turnouts and partisan fervor of the Gilded Age?
(A) The radical ideological differences between the Democratic and Republican parties
(B) Sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the membership of the Democratic and Republican parties
(C) Religious conflict between Catholics and mainline Protestants
(D) Political differences over the policy issue of civil service
(E) Sectional tensions among the Northeast, Midwest, and South

6. All of the following were among the groups that formed the solid political base of the Republican party in the late nineteenth century EXCEPT
(A) northern big cities.
(B) Union Civil War veterans of the Grand Army of the Republic.
(C) southern black freedmen.
(D) the Midwest.
(E) the rural and small-town Midwest.

7. What political development resulted from the Compromise of 1877?
(A) A renewal of Republican commitment to protect black civil rights in the South
(B) The withdrawal of federal troops and abandonment of black rights in the South
(C) The election of a Democrat to the presidency
(D) Republican support for an inflationary silver-money policy
(E) A plan to build the first transcontinental railroad

8. At the end of Reconstruction, southern whites disenfranchised African Americans using all of the following strategies EXCEPT
(A) literacy requirements.
(B) poll taxes.
(C) economic intimidation.
(D) lynching.
(E) the use of federal troops to discourage African Americans from voting in elections.

9. Which of the following was NOT a cause of labor unrest in the 1870s and 1880s?
(A) Agitation by communist sympathizers
(B) Reductions in wages by railroad owners and other industrial employers
(C) Competition of cheap labor from recently arrived immigrants from China
(D) Conflict between ethnic groups for unskilled jobs
(E) Years of depression and deflation that undermined workers’ living standards

10. All of the following internal developments during the late nineteenth century in China resulted in Chinese immigration to the United States EXCEPT
(A) the disintegration of the Chinese Empire.
(B) severe land shortages.
(C) the intrusion of European powers.
(D) the Nationalist Communist Civil War.
(E) limited economic opportunity and political turmoil.

11. With the passage of the Pendleton Act, prohibiting political contributions from many federal workers, politicians increasingly sought money from
(A) labor unions.
(B) farmers and agrarian associations.
(C) foreign contributors.
(D) contractors doing business with the federal government.
(E) large corporations.

12. Grover Cleveland argued for a lower tariff for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
(A) the failure of high tariffs to raise revenues.
(B) lower prices for consumers.
(C) less protection for monopolies.
(D) the end of the Treasury surplus.
(E) the need for smaller government.

13. How did the Billion-Dollar Congress quickly dispose of rising government surpluses?
(A) It provided subsidies to wheat, corn, and cotton farmers.
(B) It built an expensive new steel navy.
(C) It expanded pensions for Civil War veterans.
(D) It cut tariffs and other taxes.
(E) It increased spending on railroads and other transportation projects.

14. President Cleveland’s response to the depression of the 1890s demonstrated that he
(A) was able to work effectively with J. P. Morgan to address the problems of unemployment.
(B) understood the problems of urban workers better than those of farmers.
(C) had a weak grasp of the economic theory that lay behind the demand for free silver.
(D) was unable to deal effectively with such a massive economic crisis.
(E) was able to skillfully incorporate some Populist proposals into the Democratic party.

15. The Supreme Court’s decision in Plessy v. Ferguson solidified African Americans’ inferior position by
(A) establishing the principle of “separate but equal.”
(B) allowing the Ku Klux Klan to operate in the South.
(C) refusing to pass antilynching laws.
(D) favoring landowners over sharecroppers.
(E) finding the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional.

16. Grover Cleveland’s election in 1884 marked a change in nineteenth-century American politics for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that
(A) he was the first Democrat elected since James Buchanan in 1856.
(B) he was blunt and tactless, following decades of corruption.
(C) he was able to narrow the political division between the North and South.
(D) he favored agricultural over business interests.
(E) he fired many incumbent Republicans, creating Democratic dominance.

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