Chapter 22: Respiratory System and Membrane

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No exchange of gases occurs here
Segmental bronchi
Secrete a fluid containing surfactant.
Type II cells
Where the respiratory zone of the lungs begins.
Respiratory bronchioles
Composed of simple squamous epithelium.
Type I cells
Terminates in alveoli.
Alveolar duct
Composed of cuboidal cells.
Type II cells
The respiratory membrane is composed of fused basement membrane of the capillary walls and ________.
Type I cells
Ventilation perfusion coupling means that more blood flows past functional alveoli than past nonfunctional alveoli.
The olfactory mucosal lining of the nasal cavity contains the receptors for the sense of smell.
The functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air.
The lungs are perfused by two circulations: the pulmonary and the bronchial. The pulmonary circulation is for oxygenation of blood. The bronchial circulation supplies blood to the lung structures (tissue).
Changes in arterial pH can modify respiration rate and rhythm even when carbon dioxide and oxygen levels are normal
Intrapleural pressure is normally about 4 mm Hg less than the pressure in the alveoli
During normal quiet breathing, approximately 750 ml of air moves into and out of the lungs with each breath.
The alveolar ventilation rate is the best index of effective ventilation.
In chronic bronchitis, mucus production is decreased and this leads to the inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosal lining of the bronchial tree.
Labored breathing is termed dyspnea.
The largest amount of carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream in the form of carbonic anhydrase.
Increased temperature results in decreased O2 unloading from hemoglobin.
The epiglottis is a smooth muscle that covers the glottis during swallowing.
Valsalva’s maneuver involves closing off the glottis (preventing expiration) while contracting the muscles of expiration, causing an increase in intra-abdominal pressure.
Smoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia.
Tracheal obstruction is life threatening.
The parietal pleura lines the thoracic wall.
The average individual has 500 ml of residual volume in his lungs.
Atelectasis (lung collapse) renders the lung useless for ventilation.
The Hering-Breuer reflex is a potentially dangerous response that may cause over inflation of the lung.
Strong emotions and pain acting through the limbic system activate sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus, thus modulating respiratory rate and depth by sending signals to the respiratory centers
As carbon dioxide enters systemic blood, it causes more oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin (the Haldane effect), which in turn allows more CO2 to combine with hemoglobin and more bicarbonate ion to be generated the Bohr effect.
Dalton’s law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture.
Oxygenated hemoglobin releases oxygen more readily when the pH is more basic.
Nasal conchae mainly work on inhalation to warm and moisten air. They serve minor functions for exhalation.
Under certain conditions, the vocal folds act as a sphincter that prevents air passage
Apneustic breathing is characterized by prolonged inspirations.
Which of the choices below is not a functional process performed by the respiratory system?
transport of respiratory gases
The loudness of a person’s voice depends on the ________.
force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.
secrete surfactant
Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?
the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
cartilage rings
Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ________.
Boyle’s law
The statement, “in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture” paraphrases ________.
Dalton’s law
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.
interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.
0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________.
decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.
increase of carbon dioxide
Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.
the ventral respiratory group
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.
only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
Which of the following statements is incorrect
Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants.
Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?
the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
) Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?
decrease in lactic acid levels
Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer
Kaposi’s sarcoma
Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?
blood pH adjustment
Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?
Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.
Which of the following determines lung compliance?
alveolar surface tension
Tidal volume is air ________.
exchanged during normal breathing
Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
partial pressure gradient
Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.
) too little oxygen in the atmosphere
The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________
vital capacity
Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?
Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta
Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?
rising blood pressure
Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.
medulla and pons
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.
inspiratory reserve
Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?
More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.
Select the correct statement about the pharynx.
The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.
The larynx contains ________.
the thyroid cartilage
Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?
internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung?
cardiac notch
Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?
aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs
Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?
attached to the heme part of hemoglobin
Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________.
voluntary cortical control
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.
alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
Gas emboli may occur because a ________.
diver holds his breath upon ascent
Inspiratory capacity is ________.
the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
Which center is located in the pons?
pontine respirator group (PRG)
The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
as the initiator of the cough reflex
A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival by
28 weeks
Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?
The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute.
Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control.
The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration.
Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
number of red blood cells
he factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.
surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.
concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.
ciliated mucous lining in the nose
Which of the following is not possible?
Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance.
Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation.
As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required.
Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:
A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal
Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?
Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation?
nitric oxide
Type II alveolar cells secrete ________.
________ law is called the law of partial pressure.
________ law would apply to the amount of CO2 you could dissolve in a Pepsi.
Oxygen unloading in a RBC due to declining pH is called the ________.
Bohr effect
The ________ regulates smoothing of transitions from inspiration to expiration.
pontine respiratory group PRG
________ is the most common lethal genetic disease in the United States.
Cystic fibrosis
The cartilaginous flap that closes the trachea during swallowing is called the ________.
The archway in the back of the throat is called the ________.
The trachea is lined with ________ epithelium
ciliated pseudostratified columnar
Terminal bronchioles are lined with ________ epithelium.
How is alveolar gas exchange affected by emphysema and pneumonia?
With pneumonia, if the lungs become edematous, the thickness of the exchange membrane may increase dramatically, restricting gas exchange, and body tissues begin to suffer from hypoxia. With emphysema, the lungs become progressively less elastic and more fibrous, which hinders both inspiration and expiration. Gas exchange remains adequate initially, but muscular activity must be enlisted to expire. Additionally, a symptom of emphysema is fusion of alveoli, resulting in less surface area for gas exchange.
Briefly differentiate between atmospheric pressure, intrapulmonary pressure, and intrapleural pressure. Which of these is always negative in a healthy individual during normal breathing? What happens if intrapleural pressure becomes equal to atmospheric pressure?
Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by gases of the atmosphere. Intrapulmonary pressure is the pressure within the alveoli of the lungs. Intrapleural pressure is the pressure within the intrapleural space. Intrapleural pressure is negative relative to the other two during normal inspiration/expiration. Equalization of the intrapleural pressure with atmospheric pressure or intrapulmonary pressure immediately causes lung collapse.
The contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles begins inspiration. Explain exactly what happens, in terms of volume and pressure changes in the lungs, when these muscles contract.
With contraction of the diaphragm, the height of the thoracic cavity increases. Contraction of the intercostal muscles expands the diameter of the thorax. With an increase in volume of the thorax, the intrapulmonary volume increases, causing a drop in pressure relative to atmospheric pressure. Air rushes into the lungs along this pressure gradient until intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressures are equal.
What is the chloride shift and why does it occur?
The chloride shift is an ionic exchange process whereby chloride ions move from the plasma into the erythrocytes to counterbalance the net positive charge left within the erythrocytes by the rapid outrush of negative bicarbonate ions.
If a baby is born at 28 weeks’ gestation, what major problem will the doctors look for?
The type II alveolar cells may not have fully developed; therefore, there is the possibility of lung collapse, resulting in severe breathing difficulties.
How is it possible to change the pitch of our voice from high to low?
Usually, the tenser the vocal folds, the faster they vibrate and the higher the pitch. To produce deep tones, the glottis widens, and to produce high-pitched tones, the glottis becomes a slit. Intrinsic laryngeal muscles control the true vocal folds and the size of the glottis
The partial pressure gradient for oxygen (in the body) is much steeper than that for carbon dioxide. Explain how equal amounts of these two gases can be exchanged (in a given time interval) in the lungs and at the tissues.
Equal amounts of O2 and CO2 can be exchanged in the lungs and at the tissues because CO2 solubility in plasma and alveolar fluid is 20 times greater than that of O2.
Define anatomical dead space. What is the relationship between anatomical and alveolar dead space? Which value is likely to increase during lung pathology?
Anatomical dead space is the space in the conducting respiratory passageways. Alveolar dead space is the space in nonfunctional alveoli. Anatomical dead space and alveolar dead space together make up the total dead space. Alveolar dead space will increase during lung pathology.
Distinguish among anemic, ischemic, histotoxic, and hypoxemic hypoxia.
Anemic hypoxia reflects poor oxygen delivery resulting from too few RBCs or RBCs that contain abnormal or too little Hb. Ischemic hypoxia results when blood circulation is impaired or blocked. Histotoxic hypoxia occurs when body cells are unable to use O2 even though adequate amounts are delivered. Hypoxemia hypoxia is indicated by reduced arterial PO2
How will the lungs compensate for an acute rise in the partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood?
Respiratory rate will increase.

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Horizontal Fissure of the right lung Pulmonary Ventilation the tidelike movement of the air into and out of the …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy 105) The partial pressure gradient for oxygen (in the body) is much steeper than that for carbon dioxide. Explain …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy The gas laws in respiratory therapy A good knowledge of the basic principles on which respiratory therapy works is …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Pharynx the respiratory structure that is connected to the middle ear by the eustachian tube larynx called the voicebox …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Parietal pleura Lines the inner chest wall (thoracic cavity) Visceral pleura Inner layer that adheres to the lung WE …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Know and be able to label the following Two pairs of vocal folds are found in the larynx. Which …

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