Chapter 21 Quiz

Complement fixation cannot lead to __________
endogenous pyrexia

Vaccination stimulates __________ immunity.
artificial active

One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that __________.
immunity is directed against a particular pathogen

Complement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phagocytosis by __________ during a process called __________.
neutrophils and macrophages; opsonization

Most Memory B cells are found circulating in the lymph.
False

__________ constitutes about 80% of circulating antibodies in plasma.
IgG

Mucous membranes prevent most pathogens from entering the body because of the stickiness of the mucus and the presence of lysozymes.
True

T cells undergo positive selection in the thymus, which means they __________.
multiply and form clones of identical T cells

Special lymphatic vessels, called lacteals, absorb dietary __________ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.
Lipids

A pyrogen is a substance that causes __________.
Fever

__________ are found especially in the mucous membrane, standing guard against parasites and allergens.
Eosinophils

Cytotoxic T cells respond only to antigens bound to MHC-I proteins.
True

Which of the following is not an example of lymphatic tissue?
Macrophages

Beta cell destruction that causes type 1 diabetes mellitus is a(n) __________.
type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity

Which class of immunoglobulin provides passive immunity to the newborn during breastfeeding?
IgA

Most common allergies are the result of __________.
type I (acute) hypersensitivity

Which of the following is something antibodies do not do?
Differentiate into memory antibodies, which upon reexposure to the same pathogen would mount a quicker attack

Memory T cells can be up to __________ old.
Decades

___________ employ a “respiratory burst” to produce bactericidal chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorite (HClO).
Neutrophils

The antigenicity of a molecule is due to specific regions of it called haptens.
False

Red bone marrow is the point of origin of all immune cells of the lymphatic system.
True

Cytotoxic T (TC) cells are like natural killer (NK) cells because they both __________.
secrete granzymes and perforin

Lymph originates in blood capillaries that pick up tissue fluid.
False

Each immunoglobulin (Ig) has __________ antigen-bonding site(s).
Two

The first of a series of neutrophil behaviors in inflammation is __________.
margination

Naive T cells can synthesize antibodies.
False

_________ lacks the capacity to remember a pathogen or react differently to it in the future, whereas __________ utilizes memory cells to adapt to a given pathogen and ward it off more easily in the future.
Nonspecific resistance; adaptive immunity

Helper T cells respond only to epitopes attached to MHC proteins
True

Immune surveillance is a process in which __________ nonspecifically detect and destroy foreign cells and diseased host cells.
Natural Killer (NK) cells

Which of the following does(do) not belong to the second line of defense?
The gastric juices

The only lymphatic organ(s) with afferent lymphatic vessels is(are) the __________.
Lymph nodes

Clonal selection of T cells happens in the thymus.
False

The serum used for emergency treatment of snakebites stimulates __________ immunity.
Artifical passive

Pus is made of dead neutrophils, macrophages, and other tissue debris from a damaged tissue.
True

Helper T (TH) cells recognize antigens when they are bound to a(n) __________.
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein

The majority of T cells of the naive lymphocyte pool wait for the encounter with foreign antigens in the __________.
lymphatic tissues

__________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels, and they empty into the __________.
Collecting ducts; subclavian veins

Interferons are secreted in response to bacterial infections.
False

Humoral immunity takes care of intracellular viruses, whereas cellular immunity takes care of extracellular viruses.
False

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets mainly __________.
Helper T cells

Interleukins are chemical signals by which immune cells communicate with each other.
True

__________ is not a cardinal sign characteristic of inflammation.
Impaired use

T cells achieve immunocompetence in the __________.
Thymus

Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the immune system fails to distinguish __________ from foreign ones.
Self-antigens

Antigen-presenting cells usually display processed antigens to T cells in the _____________.
Lymph nodes

Lymph is similar to blood plasma, but very low in __________.
Protein

Which of the following forces does not help lymph to flow?
The lymphatic node pump

Before B cells secrete antibodies, they differentiate into _________.
Plasma cells

Which of the following cannot act as antigen-presenting cells?
T cells

Some antibodies against foreign antigens can react to similar self-antigens, causing an autoimmune disease.
True

__________ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming infected.
Interferons

A(n) __________ is the region of the molecule that is recognized by antibodies.
Epitope

Removal of the __________ would be more harmful to a one-year-old child than an adult.
Thymus

The __________ tonsils are the largest, and their surgical removal (tonsillectomy) used to be one of the most common surgical procedures performed in children.
Palatine

Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity is effective against _________
Cancer cells

__________ are antimicrobial proteins.
Interferons

When an enemy cell is present, a(n) __________ secrete perforins, which bore a hole in the enemy cell membrane.
Natural Killer cell

Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an anticoagulant called __________ and a vasodilator called __________.
heparin; histamine

Helper T (TH) cells do not __________.
secrete fever-producing chemicals

The __________ show(s) a remarkable degree of degeneration (involution) with age.
Thymus

__________ participate in both nonspecific resistance and immune response.
Helper T (TH) cells

One group of proteolytic enzymes secreted by natural killer (NK) cells is __________.
granzymes

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