Chapter 21 poisoning and overdose emergencies chapter test

Which of the following statements regarding syrup of ipecac is NOT​ true?
A.
It has an immediate action.
B.
It removes only about​ one-third of stomach contents.
C.
It typically causes emesis in patients with a single dose.
D.
It can cause a patient to aspirate stomach contents into the lungs.
A

Signs and symptoms of alcohol abuse include all of the following ​except:
A.
nausea and vomiting.
B.
an acetone or ketone odor to the breath.
C.
confusion.
D.
swaying and unsteadiness of movement.
B

By what route does nitroglycerin spray enter the​ body?
A.
Inhalation
B.
Absorption
C.
Injection
D.
Ingestion
B

Your patient is a​ 7-year-old male who ate an unknown type of mushroom on a dare by his friends. You should ask all of the following questions except​:
A.
Are there any more of the​ mushrooms?
B.
When did you eat the​ mushroom?
C.
Why did you eat the​ mushroom?
D.
How much did you​ eat?
C

You respond to assist law enforcement with a​ 35-year-old male patient​ who, according to​ them, is​ “high as a​ kite.” The patient is​ anxious, tachycardic, and angry. What condition do you​ suspect?
A.
Alcohol overdose
B.
Marijuana overdose
C.
Cocaine overdose
D.
GHB overdose
C

Barbiturates may be referred to as which of the​ following?
A.
Downers
B.
Acid
C.
Uppers
D.
Meth
A

Why should an EMT utilize a local poison control center in managing a poisoning​ patient?
A.
It places any legal liability on the poison control center.
B.
It prevents the EMT from having to do training on poisons.
C.
They can assist in finding out important information about the poison.
D.
They can activate a specialty team to come and treat the patient.
c

Which of the following is NOT true concerning a​ patient’s reaction to toxic gas​ exposure?
A.
Signs and symptoms may be immediate and severe.
B.
If the patient is treated​ immediately, there will be no​ long-term effects.
C.
The patient may present without respiratory difficulty.
D.
Signs and symptoms may be delayed.
B

Which of the following effects may occur due to chronic abuse of​ alcohol?
A.
Potential for gastrointestinal bleeding
B.
Poor nutrition
C.
Abnormal blood sugar levels
D.
All of the above
D

Your patient is a​ 50-year-old female with a history of alcoholism. She is found unresponsive in bed by her son. Which of the following possibilities should you keep in mind during your​ assessment?
A.
Heart attack
B.
Low blood sugar
C.
Head injury
D.
All of the above
D

Which of the following is a substance that will neutralize a poison or its​ effects?
A.
Curative
B.
Deactivator
C.
Antidote
D.
Antevert
C

Smoke inhalation can result in all of the following ​except:
A.
respiratory arrest.
B.
lung contusion.
C.
cardiac arrest.
D.
airway swelling and obstruction.
B

You respond to the county jail for a​ 48-year-old inmate arrested two days ago for public intoxication. Guards state the patient is a known alcoholic and​ “frequent flier.” The guards state that for several hours the patient was​ “acting crazy” and seeing​ “bugs on the​ walls.” The patient then began seizing and they called for an ambulance. You notice the patient is no longer​ seizing, diaphoretic, or confused. What condition do you​ suspect?
A.
LSD abuse
B.
Alcohol poisoning
C.
Delirium tremens
D.
Acute episode of paranoid schizophrenia
C

Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs by which of the following​ routes?
A.
Aspiration
B.
Absorption
C.
Radiation
D.
Inhalation
D

Which of the following describes any substance produced by a living organism that is poisonous to human​ beings?
A.
Antigen
B.
Acid
C.
Antibody
D.
Toxin
D

Cleaning​ fluid, glue, and model cement are common examples of which of the​ following?
A.
Aromatic spirits
B.
Narcotics
C.
Hallucinogens
D.
Volatile chemicals
D

When a substance enters the body through unbroken​ skin, it has entered the body by which of the following​ routes?
A.
Consumption
B.
Ingestion
C.
Absorption
D.
Injection
C

Which of the following is the cause of the black residue found in a​ patient’s mouth and nose following smoke​ inhalation?
A.
Carbon monoxide
B.
Carbon
C.
Cyanide
D.
Tar
B

You are called to the scene of a​ 21-year-old female patient who is unresponsive. Her boyfriend suspects that she tried to commit suicide by overdosing on her depression medications. The patient is unresponsive to painful​ stimuli, with agonal​ respirations, and has vomited. She has a weak carotid pulse. After securing the airway and providing oxygen by​ bag-valve mask, what is the MOST important question the EMT can ask regarding the​ medication?
A.
What medication did she​ take?
B.
Why is she on that particular depression​ medication?
C.
Were the medications​ new?
D.
How many pills did she​ take?
A

Which of the following is a sign or symptom of withdrawal from​ alcohol?
A.
Sweating
B.
Seizures
C.
Hallucinations
D.
All of the above
D

Which of the following substances may be ordered by medical control to dilute a​ poison?
A.
Water with syrup of ipecac
B.
Milk of magnesia or magnesium citrate
C.
Milk or water
D.
Milk or milk of magnesia
D

Which of the following is the MOST important means of managing a patient who has inhaled a​ poison, after the airway has been​ established?
A.
Hyperventilation
B.
High concentrations of oxygen
C.
Monitoring pulse oximetry
D.
Administering a specific antidote
B

Which of the following is the toxic effect of​ alcohol?
A.
Central nervous system​ (CNS) stimulation
B.
Damage to the liver
C.
Central nervous system depression
D.
Irreversible damage to the kidneys
C

Which of the following MOST affects the extent of damage a poison does to the​ body?
A.
​Patient’s genetics,​ height, and medications taken
B.
​Patient’s race,​ age, and medications taken
C.
​Patient’s nutritional​ status, genetics, and strength of the immune system
D.
​Patient’s age,​ weight, and general health
D

OxyContin is an example of which of the following types of​ drugs?
A.
Appetite suppressant
B.
Barbiturate
C.
Narcotic
D.
Antidepressant
C

Your patient is a​ 38-year-old male who has taken an overdose of several different medications and has consumed some household cleaning agents as well. On your​ arrival, the patient only responds to painful​ stimuli, and has a heart rate of 90 beats per minute with a respiratory rate of 12 breaths per minute. Medical control orders you to give the patient two to three glasses of milk to drink to dilute the contents of the stomach. Which of the following actions should you​ do?
A.
Ask medical control if you can substitute water for the milk since water will not damage the lungs if aspirated.
B.
Question the order and explain why.
C.
Assist the patient in drinking as much of the two to three glasses of milk as he can.
D.
Assist the patient in drinking only one glass of milk to reduce the risk of aspiration
B

You are called to the scene of a​ 17-year-old female patient who is unresponsive. Her mother suspects that she tried to commit suicide by taking her pain pills. The patient is unresponsive to painful​ stimuli, has agonal​ respirations, and has vomited. She has a weak carotid pulse. After securing the airway and providing oxygen by​ bag-valve mask, what is your next​ action?
A.
Perform a focused assessment.
B.
Ask the mother the name of her pain medication.
C.
Perform a rapid physical examination of the patient.
D.
Question the mother about the​ patient’s suicidal tendencies.
C

Your patient is a​ 23-year-old male who is unresponsive in the restroom of a bar. His respirations are slow and​ shallow, he has a heart rate of 50 beats per​ minute, he is sweating​ profusely, and he has constricted pupils. Which of the following substances is MOST likely responsible for the​ patient’s condition?
A.
PCP
B.
Heroin
C.
Ecstasy
D.
LSD
B

You have just arrived on the scene of an agricultural business and see three men coming out of a​ building, choking and holding their heads. One of the men tells you there are two workers still inside. What should you do​ next?
A.
Call for properly trained assistance and stay a safe distance away from the scene.
B.
Get the assistance of the men who made it out of the building to prevent delay in finding the workers inside.
C.
Evaluate the three men and administer​ high-concentration oxygen, then help them get a safe distance away from the scene.
D.
Cover your nose and mouth with a wet towel and check on the status of the two workers inside the building.
A

A patient has a dry powder poison covering both upper extremities and chest. You​ should:
A.
immediately wash the powder off to prevent further exposure.
B.
flush the area with large amounts of water and then brush the remaining poison off.
C.
cover the​ patient’s arms with a burn sheet to preserve the powder for the emergency room.
D.
brush the powder off and irrigate the contaminated area with large amounts of water.
D

Why would an EMT give activated charcoal to a patient who overdosed on the medication​ Soma?
A.
Activated charcoal binds to the​ Soma, reducing absorption by the body.
B.
Activated charcoal is the antidote to Soma poisoning.
C.
Activated charcoal coats the intestinal​ tract, preventing absorption by the body.
D.
Activated charcoal prevents the patient from vomiting.
A

Which of the following is a common sign and symptom in poisonings of all​ types?
A.
Headache and diaphoresis
B.
Nausea and vomiting
C.
Dizziness and palpitations
D.
Pain and diaphoresis
B

Which of the following is one of the MOST common inhaled poisons associated with fire​ suppression?
A.
Methane gas
B.
Carbon monoxide
C.
Polyvinyl chloride
D.
Carbon dioxide
B

Which of the following is an injury that commonly occurs in alcoholic patients with even minor falls and blows to the​ head?
A.
Subdural hematoma
B.
Skull fracture
C.
Intracerebral hematoma
D.
Concussion
A

A patient who has abused​ “uppers” will display which of the following signs and​ symptoms?
A.
Excessive​ talkativeness, dilated​ pupils, and dry mouth
B.
Constricted​ pupils, hypotension, and blurred vision
C.
Dilated​ pupils, excessive​ salivation, and food cravings
D.
Slurred​ speech, constricted​ pupils, and frequent urination
A

Which of the following is NOT a way in which poisons can access the​ body?
A.
Absorption
B.
Radiation
C.
Injection
D.
Inhalation
B

Which of the following would LEAST likely indicate that an emergency is due to drugs or​ alcohol?
A.
Empty liquor bottles at the scene
B.
Unresponsive patient with unequal pupils
C.
Open sores and scars to the upper arms
D.
Hospital discharge order with a pain prescription
B

What clinical finding is MOST suggestive of toxic smoke​ inhalation?
A.
Tachypnea
B.
​Black-colored sputum
C.
Swollen tongue
D.
Altered mental status
B

Your patient is a​ 17-year-old male who is spitting and coughing after swallowing some gasoline while siphoning from a gas tank. Which of the following should you do​ first?
A.
Contact medical control.
B.
Have the patient drink a glass of milk.
C.
Insert a Combitube or another blind insertion​ device, if you are trained to do so.
D.
Administer syrup of ipecac.
A

Which of the following types of drugs may induce sleep or​ stupor?
A.
Tranquilizers
B.
Narcotics
C.
Hallucinogens
D.
Both A and B
B

Which of the following conditions can mimic the signs of alcohol​ intoxication?
A.
Head injuries
B.
Epilepsy
C.
Diabetes
D.
All of the above
D

By​ definition, a systemic poison causes harm to which of the​ following?
A.
Specific organ system
B.
Stomach and intestines
C.
Entire body
D.
Localized areas of tissue
C

You are called to a farm for a possible organophosphate poisoning of one of the workers. Your first action is​ to:
A.
bag the patient before he dies.
B.
call for an ALS unit.
C.
decontaminate the patient.
D.
call for specialized hazardous materials units.
D

Which of the following groups is the most susceptible to the effects of a​ poison?
A.
Adults
B.
Elderly
C.
​Pre-teens
D.
Teenager
B

When a poison attaches to the chemical structure of activated​ charcoal, which of the following BEST describes this mechanism of​ action?
A.
Inactivation
B.
Adsorption
C.
Incorporation
D.
Absorption
B

Your patient is a​ 3-year-old female who has taken an unknown quantity of aspirin. She is conscious and alert. Which of the following orders is likely to be given by medical​ control?
A.
Induce vomiting by placing your finger in the​ child’s throat.
B.
Administer syrup of ipecac.
C.
Administer one to two glasses of milk.
D.
Administer activated charcoal.
D

Which of the following is a trade name for activated​ charcoal?
A.
Mesquite
B.
Actidose
C.
Actifed
D.
Charcoal
B

You are treating a​ 61-year-old who is a chronic alcohol abuser. He is complaining of​ “snakes slithering around his​ ankles,” and he tells you that he had only two drinks tonight. You notice that he is​ sweating, trembling, and anxious. Before you can complete your​ assessment, he begins to have a seizure. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this​ situation?
A.
The patient is suffering from acute alcohol poisoning.
B.
The patient could not find an alcoholic beverage and drank antifreeze instead.
C.
The patient is suffering from alcohol withdrawal.
D.
The patient drank mouthwash instead of beverage alcohol.
C

Your patient has come in contact with a strong acid substance. Using an alkaline solution to treat the patient may result in which of the​ following?
A.
Further damage to the​ patient’s tissues
B.
Neutralization of the acid substance
C.
Production of heat when the acid and alkali interact
D.
All of the above
D

The drug ecstasy is classified as what type of​ drug?
A.
Hallucinogen
B.
Barbiturate
C.
Depressant
D.
Tranquilizer
A

Your patient is an​ 18-year-old male who fell into a​ neighbor’s swimming pool but was pulled out by bystanders. The neighbors report that the patient wandered into their yard and that he said he had a​ “funny numb​ feeling” in his head and his chest hurt before stumbling into the pool. As you are performing​ CPR, you notice that the mucous membranes in his mouth and nose are swollen. Which of the following would account for the​ patient’s behavior and current​ condition?
A.
Methamphetamine
B.
Carbon monoxide poisoning
C.
GHB
D.
Volatile chemicals
D

You are called to the scene of a​ 14-year-old female patient who is unresponsive. Her mother states she has been teased and bullied at school and she suspects that she tried to commit suicide by taking her pain pills. The patient is unresponsive to painful​ stimuli, with agonal​ respirations, and has vomited. She has a weak carotid pulse. Your first action is​ to:
A.
administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask​ (NRB).
B.
administer oxygen by​ bag-valve mask​ (BVM).
C.
suction the​ patient’s airway.
D.
administer an oropharyngeal airway​ (OPA).
C

The term poison is BEST described as any substance that can do which of the​ following?
A.
Depress the​ body’s respirations
B.
Harm the body
C.
Deactivate nerve transmission
D.
Increase cellular activity
B

What is the most important treatment for a patient who has inhaled a​ poison?
A.
Administer​ high-concentration oxygen.
B.
Administer activated charcoal.
C.
Administer epinephrine via​ auto-injector.
D.
Administer the correct antidote.
A

Which of the following is the BEST initial intervention for a patient who has inhaled a​ poison?
A.
Perform abdominal thrusts to clear the​ airway, followed by​ high-concentration oxygen.
B.
Provide a patent​ airway, ventilation, and​ high-concentration oxygen.
C.
Provide plenty of fresh air and monitor pulse oximetry readings.
D.
Transport in a position of comfort and provide oxygen for patients with a decreased level of consciousness
B

The opiate triad includes all of the following ​except:
A.
pinpoint pupils.
B.
coma.
C.
hypertension.
D.
respiratory depression
C

Your patient is a​ 2-year-old conscious male who has swallowed a small quantity of bleach. Which of the following findings should you evaluate the patient​ for?
A.
Irregular pulse
B.
Dilated pupils
C.
Respiratory depression
D.
Irritation in and around the mouth
D

Your patient is a conscious​ 4-year-old female who has ingested a medication prescribed for her grandfather. To determine appropriate​ treatment, which of the following information is NOT necessary to provide to medical​ control?
A.
​Patient’s vital signs and the time the medication was taken
B.
Any home remedies attempted by the​ patient’s family
C.
​Grandfather’s name and the name of the physician who prescribed the medication
D.
​Patient’s weight and the amount of medication taken
C

How does carbon monoxide cause toxic​ effects?
A.
Causes red blood cells to clump together
B.
Prevents red blood cells from releasing carbon dioxide
C.
Prevents red blood cells from carrying oxygen
D.
Prevents the blood from clotting
C

Your patient is a​ 48-year-old male who has been exposed to a toxic powder that can be absorbed through the skin. Which of the following measures should be taken by the​ EMT?
A.
Brush off the powder and flush the​ patient’s skin with a solution of baking soda and water.
B.
Flush the​ patient’s skin with copious amounts of water.
C.
Brush off the powder and flush the​ patient’s skin with copious amounts of water.
D.
Wipe the powder away with a damp cloth.
C

Most cases of accidental poisoning involve which of the​ following?
A.
Adolescents
B.
Infants
C.
Young children
D.
Adults
C

When a chemical substance is taken for reasons other than therapeutic​ use, this action is​ called:
A.
addiction.
B.
substance abuse.
C.
psychological dependence.
D.
tolerance.
B

You are called to the residence of a​ 78-year-old widow who lives alone with no children. She was found by neighbors on the floor of the living room. She has fallen and fractured her left humerus. She is disoriented and responds to verbal stimuli only. She has a blood pressure of​ 78/40 and a pulse of 48. She has a history of high blood pressure and takes medication for it. She also takes medication for high cholesterol and a medication to slow down a fast heart rate. Emergency Medical Responders find the medication bottles in the medicine cabinet and they are empty. Your partner suspects that she accidentally overdosed on her medications. Do you agree or​ disagree?
A.
Agree. The vital signs agree with this hypothesis.
B.
Disagree. The​ patient’s vital signs are related to her broken arm.
C.
Disagree. The vital signs indicate that she has not taken her medication in several days.
D.
Agree. It is obvious that the broken arm is causing the decreased heart rate.
A

Carbon monoxide poisoning should be suspected when a patient has been in an enclosed area and has which of the following signs​ and/or symptoms?
A.
​Headache, dizziness, and nausea
B.
Vomiting and altered mental status
C.
​Flu-like symptoms
D.
All of the above
D

It is a chilly fall morning and you are called to an RV campground for three patients who are complaining of​ headache, dizziness, and nausea. Your primary assessment reveals that they are cyanotic and have an altered mental status. You​ suspect:
A.
carbon monoxide poisoning.
B.
bee sting.
C.
snake bite.
D.
food poisoning.
A

Regarding activated​ charcoal, which of the following is NOT ​true?
A.
It can reduce the amount of poison absorbed by the gastrointestinal system.
B.
It is an antidote to many poisons.
C.
It does not work on all poisons.
D.
Ingestion of strong acids or alkalis is a contraindication to its use.
B

Which of the following is LEAST often seen in carbon monoxide​ poisoning?
A.
Nausea
B.
Confusion
C.
Headache
D.
Cherry red lips
D

Which patient would most likely benefit from the administration of activated​ charcoal?
A.
​14-year-old female who overdoses on her​ grandfather’s cardiac medication
B.
​18-year-old patient who is passed out from drinking too much beer
C.
​8-year-boy who has a headache from carbon monoxide poisoning
D.
​45-year-old patient suffering from organophosphate poisoning
A

Which of the following is NOT part of the treatment for a​ 15-year-old female who has swallowed drain​ cleaner?
A.
Administer activated charcoal.
B.
Maintain the airway.
C.
Transport the patient.
D.
Call medical control.
A

Volatile chemicals are agents that are able to change easily from a​ ________ form to a​ ________ form.
A.
​gas; liquid
B.
​liquid; gas
C.
​solid; liquid
D.
​solid; vapor
B

​Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an example of which of the following types of​ drugs?
A.
Cannabis
B.
Depressant
C.
Volatile spirit
D.
Stimulant
B

Your patient is a​ 3-year-old male with a stoma who has swallowed a household cleaner. Medical direction gives you an order for milk to dilute the stomach contents. Which of the following is the correct way of carrying out this​ order?
A.
Refuse the order and explain why.
B.
Administer one glass of milk through the stoma.
C.
Have the patient drink a glass of milk while you plug the stoma to prevent leakage.
D.
Have the patient drink one glass of milk.
D

You are called to the scene of a local night club for a​ 21-year-old female patient who is bradycardic and in respiratory arrest. The​ patient’s airway is patent and the chest easily rises with​ bag-valve-mask ventilation. The​ patient’s friends state the patient had only one or two drinks when she suddenly complained of dizziness and​ “seeing things.” Her friends state that she then passed​ out, started twitching like she was​ seizing, and then stopped. Her friends adamantly state that she does not do drugs. What situation do you​ suspect?
A.
Anaphylactic reaction to the alcoholic drink
B.
Alcohol overdose
C.
Cocaine overdose
D.
GHB overdose
D

Which patient would MOST likely benefit from the administration of activated​ charcoal?
A.
Unresponsive​ 28-year-old female who overdosed on sleeping pills
B.
​48-year-old man who attempted suicide by drinking Drano®®
C.
​28-year-old male who is suffering from food poisoning after eating eggs contaminated with salmonella
D.
Alert​ 16-year-old female who overdosed on Tylenol®®
D

Your patient is a conscious​ 16-year-old female who has ingested an unknown number of sleeping pills. Which of the following questions is LEAST pertinent to the care of this​ patient?
A.
Has anyone tried to treat you with​ anything?
B.
How much do you​ weigh?
C.
Who do these sleeping pills belong​ to?
D.
Over what period of time did you take the​ pills?
C

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What is the reason for giving an epinephrine​ auto-injector in a​ life-threatening allergic​ reaction? It will help constrict the​ patient’s blood vessels and relax the airway passages. Your patient is a​ 59-year-old woman with a history of emphysema. Per​ protocol, …

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