Chapter 2: Principles of Pharmacology

Onset of action?
the time it takes a drug to reach the concentration necessary to produce a therapeutic effect

Peak effect
is the maximum drug effect produced by a drug once the drug has reached its maximum concentration in body

Duration of action
is the time between the onset of action and discontinuation of drug action

4 pharmacokinetic phases?
– absorption
– distribution
– metabolism
– elimination

First-pass effect
process whereby the liver metabolizes nearly all of a drug to an inactive metabolite, before it passes into the general circulation.

Factors influencing metabolism? (8)
– Liver function
– Disease (e.g., liver, lung, kidney)
– Age (infancy and elderly)
– Concurrent administration of drugs
– Genetics (e.g., PKU)
– Nutrition (e.g., starvation or low-protein diets)
– Foods (e.g., grapefruit juice)
– Gender

Factors influencing elimination? (4)
– Kidney function
– Disease (e.g., kidney, lung, bowel)
– Extent of drug ionization in the urine
– Concurrent administration of drugs (such as urinary acidifiers, e.g., vitamin C, which decrease the elimination of acidic drugs)

Elimination half-life (1/2)
the time it takes for 50% of the drug to be cleared from the
bloodstream

Bioavailability
the extent to which an administered amount of drug reaches the site of action and is available to produce drug effect(s)

Factors influencing bioavailability? (2)
– Drug absorption and
– Distribution to the site of action

Pharmaceutical equivalents
– Different inactive ingredients
– Different dosage form
– Exhibit different rates of absorption than the brand name

Pharmaceutical alternatives
– Same active ingredient as the brand name product
– Strength and dosage form may be different.

Therapeutic alternative
Different active ingredients, yet produce the same desired therapeutic outcome

Absorption refers to the movement of drug into the bloodstream, with the rate dependent on the physical characteristics of the drug and its formation. Refers to the passage of drug molecules from the site of administration into the circulation. Active …

Trade name Also known as the drug’s brand name Official name A drug name given by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my …

Additive effects drug interactions the effects of comb. of 2 or more drugs w/ similiar actions is = to the sum of the individual drug given alone 1+1=2 Adverse drug event undersirable occurrence related to administering/falling to administer a prescribed …

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absorption The process by which one substance is absorbed, or taken in and incorporated, into another, as when the body converts food or drugs into a form it can use. administer To give a drug directly by injection, by mouth, …

Phases of Drug Action 1. Pharmaceutical Phase 2. Pharmokinetic Phase 3. Pharmacodynamic Phase Pharmaceutical Phase Dissolution/dissolve phase WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Pharmacokinetic Phase (hard notes) …

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