unusual and rare.
different from one another.
Decide to help.
Call 9-1-1 if EMS is needed.
Check the victim.
Give first aid
are confused about what is an emergency.
are influenced by the characteristics of the emergency.
Outdated and unproven first aid procedures may be used.
Feel confident enough about helping.
Be willing to take the time to help.
Put the potential risks of helping in perspective.
Feel comfortable about taking charge.
Helping doesn’t matter.
Obstacles can prevent helping.
No other bystanders are helping
Could the condition get worse on the way to the hospital?
Does the victim need the skills or equipment of EMS?
Sudden or severe pain
Coughing or vomiting blood
Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath
Sudden dizziness, weakness, or fainting
Changes in vision
There is a cut to the eyeball.
A deep cut to the abdomen causes moderate to severe pain.
An EMS ambulance can get a victim to the hospital quicker.
EMS care can increase a victim’s chances of survival and rate of recovery.
Emergency numbers are usually listed on the inside front cover of telephone directories.
Give the victim’s location.
Give the phone number you are calling from and your name.
Describe what happened.
Do not hang up until instructed to do so.
Desensitization can be effective in eliminating fears and anxieties.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a feeling of emotional letdown.
cause of the injury or illness.
number of victims.
Use soap and water if possible.
Rub hands together for 15 to 20 seconds.
Wash wrists, palms, backs of hands, and fingers.
Dry completely with a clean towel.
Remove the second glove by pinching the exterior with the partially gloved hand.
Pull the second glove inside-out toward the fingertips
Grasp both gloves with your free hand, touching only the clean, interior surfaces.
Recommended when administering CPR
Use absorbent barriers to soak up blood and other materials.
Clean the area using soap and water.
Discard contaminated materials properly.
Report incident to supervisor.
Contact personal physician.
Seek medical care if exposure was significant.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Assure the victim you will locate and inform his or her family.
Allow some hope.
Do not volunteer information to others.
Offer simple, clear, honest information if asked.
Use a gentle tone.
Use a reassuring touch.
Allow survivors to grieve.
Provide simple, honest, clear information.
Offer support and comfort.
Do not leave an individual survivor alone, but respect privacy.