Chapter 15 The Urinary System

antiseptic
A substance that tends to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms.

arteriole
The smallest branch of an artery.

aseptic technique
Any health care procedure in which precautions are taken to prevent contamination of a person, object, or area by microorganisms.

asymptomatic
Without symptoms.

azotemia
The presence of excessive amounts of waste products of metabolism (nitrogenous compounds) in the blood caused by failure of the kidneys to remove urea from the blood. Azotemia is characteristic of uremia.

Bowman’s capsule
The cup-shaped end of a renal tubule containing a glomerulus; also called glomerular capsule.

calculus
An abnormal stone formed in the body tissues by an accumulation of mineral salts; usually formed in the gallbladder and kidney.

calyx
The cup-shaped division of the renal pelvis through which urine passes from the renal tubules.

catheter
A hollow, flexible tube that can be inserted into a body cavity or vessel for the purpose of instilling or withdrawing fluid.

cortex
The outer layer of a body organ or structure.

cystometer
An instrument that measures bladder capacity in relation to changing pressure.

cystoscope
An instrument used to view the interior of the bladder. It consists of an outer sheath with a lighting system, a scope for viewing, and a passage for catheters and devices used in surgical procedures; may also be referred to as a “cysto”.

dialysate
Solution that contains water and electrolytes that passes through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and wastes from the blood; also called “bath”.

dialysis
The process of removing waste products from the blood when the kidneys are unable to do so. Hemodialysis involves passing the blood through an artificial kidney for filtering out impurities. Peritoneal dialysis involves introducing fluid into the abdomen through a catheter. Through the process of osmosis, this fluid draws waste products out of the capillaries into the abdominal cavity. It is then removed from the abdomen via a catheter.

dwell time
Length of time the dialysis solution stays in the peritoneal cavity during peritoneal dialysis.

fossa
A hollow or depression, especially on the surface of the end of a bone. In kidney transplantation, the donor kidney is surgically placed in the iliac fossa of the recipient.

glomerular filtrate
Substances that filter out of the blood through thin walls of the glomeruli (e.g. water, sugar, salts, and nitrogenous waste products such asurea, creatinine, and uric acid).

glomerulus
A ball-shaped collection of very tiny coiled and intertwined capillaries, located in the cortex of the kidney.

hilum
The depression, or pit, of an organ where the vessels or nerves enter.

hydrostatic pressure
The pressure exerted by a liquid.

hydroureter
The distension of the ureter with urine due to blockage from an obstruction.

meatus
An opening or tunnel through any part of the body, as in the urinary meatus, which is the external opening of the urethra.

medulla
The most internal part of a structure of organ.

micturition
The act of eliminating urine from the bladder; also called voiding or urination.

nephrolith
A kidney stone; also called a renal calculus.

nephrolithiasis
A condition of kidney stones; also known as renal calculi.

palpable
Distinguishable by touch.

peritoneum
A specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained viscera; the inner lining of the abdominal cavity.

peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum (the membrane lining the abdominal cavity).

pyelitis
Inflammation of the renal pelvis.

radiopaque
Not permitting the passage of X-rays or other radiant energy. Radiopaque areas appear white on an exposed X-ray film.

renal artery
One of a pair of large arteries, branching from the abdominal aorta, that supplies blood to the kidneys, adrenal glands, and ureters.

renal calculus
A stone formation in the kidney (plural: renal calculi); also called a nephrolith.

renal pelvis
The central collecting part of the kidney that narrows into the large upper end of the ureter. It receives urine through the calyces and drains it into the ureters.

renal tubule
A long, twisted tube that leads away from the glomerulus of the kidney to the collecting tubules. As the glomerular filtrate passes through the renal tubules, the water, sugar, and salts are reabsorbed into the bloodstream through the network through the capillaries that surround them.

renal vein
One of two vessels that carries blood away from the kidney.

residual urine
Urine that remains in the bladder after urination.

solute
A substance dissolved in a solution, as in the waste products filtered out of the kidney into the urine.

specific gravity
The weight of a substance compared with an equal volume of water, which is considered to be the standard. Water is considered to have a specific gravity of 1.000 (one). Therefore, a substance with a specific gravity of 2.000 would be twice as dense as water.

toxic
Poisonous

turbid
Cloudy.

uremia
The presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood; also called azotemia.

ureter
One of a pair of tubes that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.

urethra
A small tubular structure that drains urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.

urethritis
Inflammation of the urethra. Urethritis, characterized by dysuria, is usually the result of an infection of the bladder or kidneys.

urinary incontinence
Inability to control urination; the inability to retain urine in the bladder.

urinary retention
An abnormal involuntary accumulation of urine in the bladder; the inability to empty the bladder.

urination
The act of eliminating urine from the body; also called micturition or voiding.

urine
The fluid released by the kidneys, transported by the ureters, retained in the bladder, and eliminated through the urethra. Normal urine is clear, straw colored and slightly acid.

vesicocele
Herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina; also called cystocele.

voiding
The act of eliminating urine from the body; also called micturition or urination.

Antiseptic Subtance that tends to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms Fossa A hollow or depression, especially on the surface of the end of a bone. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Glomerulonephritis Many of these diseases are characterized by inflammation of the Glomeruli. This disease can also be acute or chronic. Name this disease. Acute Glomerulonephritis Symptoms come on suddenly and can be temporary or reversible. This disease can come about …

abscess localized collection of pus acetone ketone WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample albuminuria protein in the urine antidiuretic hormone hormone that stimulates water reabsorption by the …

Urinary elimination depends on the function of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Urinary tract infection is the term given to any infection of part of the urinary system. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, the bladder, the ureters …

The respiratory system works independently from the urinary system but the two works similarly in a number of ways. The main organ of the respiratory system is the lung, more particularly the alveoli. The alveoli are the lung’s air sacs, …

During pregnancy, a woman’s body experiences many remarkable changes in terms of the structure and function of the urinary tract. As blood volume expands, there is also an accompanied increase in the glomerular filtration rate and urinary output. As an …

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