chapter 15 history

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depression
a period of low economic activity and rising unemployment

after a brief period of prosperity in Europe in 1924
the Great Depression began ____.

collective bargaining
the right of unions to negotiate with employers over wages and hours

right to collective bargaining, a 40 hr work week, and a minimum wage
what did the French New Deal give workers?

deficit spending
when a government pays out more money than it can take in through taxation and other revenues, ultimately going into debt

John Keynes
who believed governments could increase demand by creating jobs through deficit spending?

surrealism
an artistic movement that seeks to depict the world of the unconscious (nightmares, dreams, fantasies, etc.)

uncertainty principle
belief that the behavior of subatomic particles is uncertain, suggesting that all of the physical laws governing the universe are based on uncertainty, shook the belief that all phenomena could be completely defined and predicted, world view of uncertainty after WWI

Werner Heisenberg in 1927
who created the uncertainty principle?

Dawes Plan
named after the American banker who chaired the commission

first reduced reparations, coordinated Germany’s annual payments with its ability to pay, granted an initial $200 million loan for German recovery which opened the door to heavy American investment
what did the Dawes Plan do for Germany?

Treaty of Locarno
signed by Gustav Streseman and Aristide Briand (foreign ministers of Germany and France) in 1925 during a period of prosperity after the Dawes Plan, viewed as the beginning of a new era of European peace

new western borders with France and Belgium
what did the Treaty of Locarno guarantee for Germany?

Weimar Republic
German democratic state, created after the end of imperial Germany in 1918 with Germany’s defeat in the war, had severe economic problems (inflation, etc.), gave rise to extremists movements

John Maynard Keynes
new British economist, political leaders ignored his ideas, believed in deficit spending, his ideas differed from those who believed that depressions should be left to resolve themselves without government interference

Franklin D. Roosevelt
US democrat, won the presidential election in 1932 by a landslide, believed in free enterprise, felt that capitalism must be reformed to save it, created the New Deal

a. increased program of public works, Works Progress Administration employed about 3 million at its peak
b. US welfare system
c. built bridges, roads, post offices, airports
d. Social Security Act
what did the New Deal create?

1. a series of downturns in the economies of the individual nations in the second half of the 1920’s
2. an international financial crisis involving the US stock market
what triggered the Great Depression?

governments did not know how to handle the crisis, the Great Depression led masses of people to follow dictatorial political leaders who offered simple solutions in return for dictatorial power
how did the Great Depression affect people’s confidence in
democracy?

nightmare of WWI became surreal artwork that reflected the uncertainty of life, scientists suggested that all physical laws are based on uncertainty (uncertainty principle)
how were the sciences influenced by WWI?

totalitarian state
new form of dictatorship through propaganda, a government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens (heart and mind)

fascism
a POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY that glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government, used by Mussolini, silences opposition

Politburo
the Communist Party’s main policy making body, 7 members, severely divided over the future direction of the Soviet Union

collectivization
Stalin’s policy, a system in which private farms are eliminated and peasants work land owned by the government, to resist peasants hoarded crops and killed livestock, 26 million family farms collected, with rapid industrialization came an equally rapid collectivization of agriculture

Benito Mussolini
set up the first European fascist movement in Italy, began as a Socialist, created the political group the League of Combat, converted thousands to the Fascist Party with his nationalistic appeals, established complete control over the Italian people

Joseph Stalin
followed a policy of war communism during the civil war in Russia, ended the New Economic Policy, removed the Bolsheviks of the revolutionary era from the Politburo and established a powerful dictatorship, created the Five Year Plans

Stalin’s Five Year Plans
created in 1928, set economic goals for five year periods, because of the first 2 plans steel production in Russia increased from 4 million to 18 million tons per year

first Five Year Plan focused on production of military and capital goods and quadrupled the production of heavy machinery and doubled oil production
what did the first Five Year Plan focus on?

to transform Russia virtually overnight from an agricultural into an industrial country
what was the purpose of the Five Year Plans?

General Francisco Franco
led Spanish military forces that revolted against the democratic government in 1936 that began a bloody civil war, his army was aided with arms, money, and soldiers by the fascist regimes of Italy and Germany, civil war came to an end when Franco’s forces captured Madrid in 1939, established a dictatorship that lasted until his death in 1975, his rule was harsh

took advantage of unrest to create a new political group and grew it by appealing to nationalism, Mussolini then threatened to march on Rome and was made prime minister
how did Mussolini create a dictatorial state in Italy?

he used his position as general secretary to gain control of the Communist party, he established programs that changed agriculture and industry and strengthened his control over the party by eliminating all opposition (labor camps, death lists, etc.)
how did Stalin gain and maintain power in the USSR?

NOT TOTALITARIAN, did not want to create a mass society, the goal was to preserve the existing social order
what was the goal of authoritarian (1 ruler) governments in the West?

Reichstag
the German parliament, lost a lot of their power due to the rise of the Nazis, passed Enabling Act, the Nazi party became the largest party

concentration camps
a camp where prisoners of war, political prisoners, or members of minority groups are confined, typically under harsh conditions

Adolph Hitler
sole dictator of Germany, took total control of the Nazi party, strong believer in anti-semitism and racism, wanted to establish an Aryan race and totalitarian state, used propaganda and terror to get people to support him and view him as a powerful leader, wrote Mein Kampf

extreme German nationalism, anti-Semitism, anticommunism, racism
what philosophies did Hitler believe in?

German Workers’ Party (right wing extreme nationalist party)
anti-democracy, anti-communist, nationalism, and racism, members were called Nazis, 800,000 members by 1932, known as the Storm Troops, Browncoats, largest party in the Reichstag, used mass demonstrations and rallies to make the German people an instrument of Hitler’s policies

“My Struggle,”an account of his movement and its basic ideas, in it he links extreme German nationalism, strong Anti-Semitism, and anticommunism together by a Social Darwinian theory of struggle
Mein Kampf

when Hitler was in prison for Beer Hall Putsch
when was Mein Kampf written?

lebensraum
“living space,” through expansion as explained in Mein Kampf

Enabling Act
allowed Nazi party to come to power, passed by 2/3 of the Reichstag on March 23, 1933, gave the government the power to ignore the constitution for four years while it issued laws to deal with the country’s problems, gave Hitler’s later actions a legal basis (he became a dictator in effect)

Aryan
a term used to identify people speaking Indo-European languages, Nazis misused the term treating it as a racial designation, Hitler’s ideal race that would dominate Europe and possibly the world

Heinrich Himmler
under his control the SS (Schutzstaffeln) came to control not only the secret police forces he had set up but also the regular police forces

the chief goal of the SS was to further the Aryan master race (used terror and ideology)
according to Heinrich Himmler, what was the goal of the SS?

Nuremberg Laws
anti-Semitic laws announced by the Nazis in September 1935 at the annual rally in Nuremberg

defined who was considered a Jew, stripped Jews of their German citizenship and civil rights, forbade marriages between Jews and Germans, Jews were required to wear yellow star of David and carry identification cards saying they were Jews
what did the Nuremberg Laws force the Jews to do?

Kristallnacht
November 9, 1938, “night of shattered glass,” Nazis burned synagogues and destroyed 7,000 Jewish businesses, 30,000 Jews arrested and sent to concentration camps, Jews barred from all public transportation, public buildings, prohibited from owning, managing, or working in retail stores

he used economic policy, mass spectacle, propaganda, and terror to build the Nazi state
how did Hitler build a Nazi state?

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy The French New Deal gave workers the right to Use collective bargaining The purpose of Stalin’s Five-Year Plans was …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Austria Hitler’s birthplace Nazi National Socialist German Workers’ Party WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy General ride in prices and pay rates Inflation Period of low economic activity and high unemployment Depression WE WILL …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy How did the Great Depression eventually change Germany politically? Germans eventually believed that Hitler would solve their economic problems …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Hitler inaccurately associated the concept of an Aryan race with all of the following groups EXCEPT Jews Hitler ended …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy 1. Which country was punished most harshly for its involvement in World War I? Germany was most harshly punished. …

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