Chapter 14 Medical Overview

A seizure patient is having what kind of medical emergency?
Neurologic emergencies involve the brain and may be caused by a seizure, stroke, or fainting (syncope).

If an injury distracts an EMT from assessing a more serious underlying illness, the EMT has suffered from:
As an EMT, you should use the dispatch information to guide your initial response, but do not get locked into a preconceived idea of the patient’s condition strictly from what the dispatcher tells you. Tunnel vision occurs when you become focused on one aspect of the patient’s condition and exclude all others, which may cause you to miss an important injury or illness.

If a “frequent flier” calls 9-1-1 because of a suspected head injury, you should NEVER:
You are obligated as a medical professional to refrain from labeling patients and displaying personal biases. Never assume that you know what the problem is, even when you are treating patients who frequently call for EMS. This attitude could result in missing a serious condition.

If your medical patient is not in critical condition, how long should you spend on scene?
In many cases, the time on scene may be longer for medical patients than for trauma patients. If the patient is not in critical condition, you should gather as much information as possible from the scene so that you can transmit that information to the physician at the emergency department.

Your patient is having respiratory difficulty and is not responding to your treatment. What is the best method of transport?
Patients with respiratory difficulty generally require high-priority transport, especially if they do not respond to your initial treatment. If a life-threatening condition exists, the transportation should include lights and sirens. In this case, it is appropriate to select the closest hospital with an emergency department as your destination.

When assessing a patient with an infectious disease, what is the first action you should perform?
The assessment of a patient suspected to have an infectious disease should be approached much like any other medical patient. First, the scene must be sized up and standard precautions taken. Always show respect for the feelings of the patient, family members, and others at the scene.

Your patient believes he has hepatitis and is now exhibiting signs of cirrhosis of the liver. He most likely has:
Cirrhosis of the liver develops in 50% of patients with chronic hepatitis C.

Your patient is complaining of fever, headache, stiffness of the neck, and red blotches on his skin. He most likely has:
Patients with meningitis will have signs and symptoms such as fever, headache, stiff neck, and altered mental status. Patients with meningococcal meningitis often have red blotches on their skin; however, many patients with forms of meningitis that are not contagious also have red blotches.

What should you do if you are exposed to a patient who is found to have pulmonary tuberculosis?
If you are exposed to a patient who is found to have pulmonary tuberculosis, you will be given a tuberculin skin test. This simple skin test determines whether a person has been infected with M. tuberculosis.

All of the following are factors that increase the risk for developing MRSA, EXCEPT:
antibiotic therapy.
prolonged hospital stays.
exposure to an infected patient.
close contact with wild birds.
Factors that increase the risk for developing MRSA include antibiotic therapy, prolonged hospital stays, a stay in intensive care or a burn unit, and exposure to an infected patient. Close contact with wild birds is a factor that may increase the risk of acquiring avian flu.

Respiratory
Asthma, Emphysema.

Cardiovascular
Congestive heart failure, Heart attack

Neurologic
Syncope, Seizure

Gastrointestinal
Appendicitis, Pancreatitis

Urologic
Kidney stones,

Endocrine
Diabetes mellitus,

Hematologic
Hemophilia, Sickle cell disease.

Immunologic
Anaphylactic reaction,

Toxicologic
Substance abuse, plant poisoning

Psychiatric
Depression,

Gynecologic
Pelvic inflammatory disease

The most important aspect of the scene size up is?
Ensuring scene safety.

Index of suspicion
Your awareness of and concern for potentially serious underlying and unseen.

If your patient is alone and unresponsive, in order to obtain some form of medical history you should?
search the scene for medical containers or medical devices.

“Has this ever happened before?” helps to determine the?
History of present illness.

You should assess pulse, motor, and sensation in all of the extremities and check for pupillary reactions if you suspect a?
neurologic problem.

When palpating the chest and abdomen, you are attempting to identify areas of?
Tenderness

Patients with altered mental status should be considered?
moderate priority when determining transport options.

A patient suffering form a heart attack should be transported to?
A university hospital with a catheterization lab, 15 minutes away.

False statement regarding HIV.
It’s not considered a hazard when deposited on mucous membranes.

If you have been exposed to an HIV positive patients blood, you should?
seek medical advice as soon as possible.

The incubation period for the Ebola virus is approximately?
6 to 12 days after exposure.

The incubation period for hepatitis B is typically?
4 to 12 weeks

Vaccinations are NOT available for which form of hepatitis?
Hepatitis C

False statement about tuberculosis.
It is found in open, uncrowned living spaces.

A bacterium that causes infections and is resistant to many antibiotics.
Hepatitis C

An outbreak that occurs on a global scale.
Pandemic

The result of a sickle cell disease or various blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia.
Hematologic emergencies

Occurs when you become focused on one aspect of the patient’s condition and exclude all others.
Tunnel Vision

Helps determine the level of consciousness.
AVPU scale.

How long do you assess vital signs for an unstable patient?
Every 5 minutes.

How long do you assess vital signs for a stable patient?
Every 15 minutes.

Permission to administer certain medication is usually obtain from who?
Medial Control

Should be used on a patient who is apneic and pulse less.
AED

Patients include those with altered mental status, airway and breathing difficulties, or any sign of circulatory compromise.
High priority patients

2 categories of transportation
Ground and air

A medical condition caused by the growth and spread of small harmful organisms within the body.
Infectious Disease

Inflammation of the liver.
Hepatitis

Transmitted orally through oral and fecal contamination.
Hepatitis C

Signs along the veins that indicate potential IV drug use when examining the extremities.
Track Marks

The strength or ability of a pathogen to produce disease.
Virulence

A chronic mycobacterial disease that usually strikes the lungs.
Tuberculosis

Patients with a fever, headache, stiff neck, and altered mental status may be suffering from what?
Meningitis

Bacteria
Grow and reproduce outside the human cell in the appropriate temperature and with the appropriate nutrients. Ex. Salmonella

Viruses
Smaller than bacteria; multiply only inside a host and die when exposed to the environment. Ex. HIV

Fungi
Similar to bacteria in that they require the appropriate nutrients and organic material to grow. Ex. mold

Protozoa (parasites)
One – celled microscopic organisms, some of which cause disease. Ex. Amoebas

Helminths (parasites)
Invertebrates with long, flexible, rounded, or flattened bodies.

The general type of illness a patient is experiencing.
Nature of illness

Emergencies are injuries that are the result of physical forces applied to the body.
Trauma

Emergencies are life threats that require EMS attention because of illness or condition not caused by an outside force.
Medical

An inflammation of the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Meningitis

Awareness that unseen life-threatening injuries or illness may exist is known as?
Index of suspicion

A virus characterized by small blisters whose location depends on the type of virus.
Herpies

4 examples of how you can contract HIV while taking care of patients in EMS.
Patients blood is splashed or sprayed into your eyes, nose, or mouth or into an open sore or cut; even microscopic openings in the skin are a possible source.
You have blood from an infected patient on your hands and then touch your eyes, nose, mouth, or an open sore or cut.
A needle used to inject the patient breaks your skin.
Broken glass at a motor vehicle collision or other incident may penetrate you glove and skin, which is covered with blood from an infected patient.

5 major components of patient assessment for medial emergencies.
Scene size-up
Primary assessmet
History Taking
Secondary assessment
Reassessment

Define each component of the acronym TACOS, which is used when determining factors that could complicate the chief complaint.
Tobacco
Alcohol
Caffeine
Over the counter medication/herbal supplements
Sexual and street drugs

3 conditions that are seemed serious and require rapid transport.
1. Unresponsive/altered mental status
2. Airway/Breathing Problems
3. Circulatory problems, such as severe bleeding or signs of shock.

List important questions to ask if patients who potentially recently traveled.
1. Where did you travel?
2. Did you receive any vaccinations before your trip?
3. Were you exposed to any infectious diseases?
4. I there anyone else in your travel party who is sick?
5. What type of food did you eat?
What was your source of drinking water?

Occurs when new cases of a disease in a human population substantially exceed the number expected based on recent experience.
epidemic

A common virus that is asymptomatic in 80% of people carrying it, but characterized by small blisters on the lips or genitals in symptomatic infections.
herpes simplex

Awareness that unseen life-threatening injuries or illness may exist.
index of suspicion

A virus that has crossed the animal/human barrier and infected humans and that thousands of people every year.
influenza

Emergencies that are not caused by an outside force; illnesses or conditions.
medical emergencies

An inflammation of the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord; it is usually caused by a virus or a bacterium.
meningitis

An inflammation of the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord; can be highly contagious.
meningococcal meningitis

A bacterium that can cause infections in different parts of the body and is often resistant to commonly used antibiotics; it is transmitted by different routes, including the respiratory route, and can be found on the skin, in surgical wounds, in the bloodstream, in the lungs, and urinary tract.
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Emergencies that are the result of physical forces applied to the body; injuries.
trauma emergencies

The strength or ability of a pathogen to produce disease.
virulence

An index of suspicion is MOST accurately defined as: Your awareness and concern for potentially serious underlying and unseen injuries or illness. A 33-year-old female presents with lower abdominal quadrant pain. She is conscious and alert, but in moderate pain. …

When caring for a patient who takes numerous medications, it is best to: A. document the medications on your patient care report, but leave them at home so they do not get misplaced. B. take all of the patient’s medications …

Bloodborne pathogens A disease producing microbat is transmitted to another person through blood or other body fluids Body fluids Liquid or semi-liquid substance is produced by the body such as blood and feces vomitus saliva drainage from wounds sweat semen …

Precautions as a Medical Assistant In the Medical Assistant profession it is important to take every safety precaution possible. Sometimes a Medical Assistant may have to come in contact with syringes to either give injections, or dispose of contaminated medical …

Herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by simplex viruses type 1(HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Genital Herpes is mostly caused by Herpes type 2. Herpes type 1 and type 2 all have minimal symptoms that show infection to an …

primary assessment the portion of patient assessment that focuses only on life threats, specifically ABCs 2 terms that primary assessment are also known as primary survey and initial assessment WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

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