Chapter 13 – The Endocrine System

hyperpituitarism
the excessive secretion of growth hormone that causes acromegaly and gigantism

hypogonadism
the condition of deficient secretion of hormones by the sex glands

pinealectomy
the surgical removal of the pineal gland

thyroid storm
a relatively rare, life-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism

myxedema
a severe form of adult hypothyroidism

thymitis
inflammation of the thymus gland

estrogen
a hormone with an important role in the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics and the regulation of the menstrual cycle

radioactive iodine treatment
the oral administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells

diabetes insipidus
a condition caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or by the inability of the kidneys to respond to ADH

adrenalitis
inflammation of the adrenal glands

Graves’ disease
a disorder of unknown cause in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland and stimulates it to make excessive amounts of thyroid hormone, resulting in hyperthyroidism

pituitary adenoma
one of two types of slow-growing, benign tumors of the pituitary gland that may or may not cause excess hormone secretion

gynecomastia
the condition of excessive mammary development in the male

thyroid scan
a specialized nuclear scan to evaluate thyroid function

insulin shock
a diabetic emergency caused by very low blood sugar

goiter
an abnormal, nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland

hyperthyroidism
the overproduction of thyroid hormones, which causes an imbalance of metabolism

cortisol
a hormone that has an anti-inflammatory action; it also regulates the metabolism of carbs, fats, and proteins in the body

human growth hormone
a synthetic version of the growth hormone that is administered to stimulate growth when the natural supply of growth hormone is insufficient for normal development

diabetic retinopathy
injury to the eye that occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina of the eye

cretinism
a congenital form of hypothyroidism that if not treated soon after birth, causes arrested physical and mental development

thymectomy
the surgical removal of the thymus gland

thyroid carcinoma
cancer of the thyroid gland

luteinizing hormone
the hormone that stimulates ovulation in the female and production of the female sex hormone progesterone. in the male it stimulates the secretion of testosterone

polyphagia
excessive hunger

antidiuretic hormone
the hormone that helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted through the kidneys

hyperglycemia
an abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood

leptin
a protein hormone secreted by fat cells that is involved in the regulation of appetite

aldosteronism
an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone

thyroxine
one of the primary hormones secreted by the thyroid gland that regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of other body systems

prediabetes
a condition in which the blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes

polydipsia
excessive thirst

electrolytes
mineral substances, such as sodium and potassium, normally found in the blood

polyuria
excessive urination

hyperparathyroidism
the overproduction of the parathyroid hormone that causes hypercalcemia

laparoscopic adrenalectomy
a minimally invasive procedure to surgically remove one or both adrenal glands

aldosterone (ALD)
an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone

thymosin
hormone secreted by the thymus gland that stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells of the immune system

cortisone
the synthetic equivalent of natural corticosteroids that are administered to suppress inflammation and to act as an immunosuppressant

progesterone
this hormone, whose function is to complete the preparation of the uterus for pregnancy, is released during the second half of the menstrual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary

acromegaly
a rare chronic disease characterized by abnormal enlargement of the extremities (hand/feet) caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty

hyperinsulinism
a condition marked by excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream

syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
overproduction of the antidiuretic hormone ADH, leading to bloating, water retention, and electrolyte imbalance

norepinephrine
a combination of a hormone and a neurohormone that plays an important role in the “fight-or-flight response”

Hashimoto’s disease
an autoimmune disease in which the body’s own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland

pheochromocytoma
a benign tumor of the adrenal gland that causes the release of excess epinephrine and norepinephrine

latent autoimmune diabetes in adults
a condition in which type 1 diabetes develops in adults

thyroid-stimulating hormone assay
a diagnostic test to measure the circulating blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
the hormone that stimulates ovulation in the female. in the male, it stimulates the secretion of testosterone

exophthalmos
an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit

epinephrine
a hormone that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system in response to physical injury or to mental stress such as fear; also known as adrenaline

growth hormone
the hormone that regulates the growth of bone, muscle and other body tissues

gestational diabetes mellitus
the form of diabetes that occurs during some pregnancies

Conn’s syndrome
a disorder of the adrenal glands due to excessive production of aldosterone

antithyroid drug
a medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones

diabetic coma
a diabetic emergency caused by very high blood sugar

glucagon
the hormone that increases the amount of glucose in the bloodstream by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen into glucose

insulin
the hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets in response to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream. its function is to allow glucose to enter cells for energy or to stimulate the liver to convert glucose to glycogen for storage

synthetic thyroid hormones
medications administered to replace lost thyroid function

type 2 diabetes
an insulin resistance disorder in which, although insulin is being produced, the body does not use it effectively

pinealoma
a tumor of the pineal gland

homeostasis
the processes through which the body maintains a constant internal environment

hypercalcemia
abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones and teeth

pancreatectomy
surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas

Cushing’s syndrome
a condition caused by the overproduction of cortisol by the body or by taking corticosteroids to treat inflammatory diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis; also known as hypercortisolism

gigantism
abnormal growth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone before puberty

short stature
condition resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate length compared to the size of the head and trunk

hypoparathyroidism
a condition caused by an insufficient or absent secretion of parathyroid hormone

home blood glucose monitoring
test performed by the patient using drop of blood to measure the current blood sugar level

glucose
the basic form of energy used by the body; also known as blood sugar

steroids
a large family of hormone like substances that share the same fat-soluble chemical structure

hypophysectomy
the removal of abnormal tissue from the pituitary gland

hypothyroidism
a deficiency of thyroid secretion; also known as under-active thyroid

type 1 diabetes
an autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells

Addison’s disease
a condition that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone

fructosamine test
a blood test that measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks

testosterone
a steroid hormone secreted by the testes and the adrenal cortex that stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics

pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas

hypergonadism
the excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands

hypoglycemia
an abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood

puberty
the process of physical changed by which a child’s body becomes an adult body that is capable of reproducing

thyroid-stimulating hormone
a diagnostic test to measure the circulating blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone

oral glucose tolerance test
a test performed to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and to aid in diagnosing hypoglycemia

insulinoma
a benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia

diabetes mellitus
a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both

hypocalcemia
a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood

prolactinoma
a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes the gland to produce too much prolactin

calcitonin
a hormone that works with the parathyroid hormone to decrease calcium levels in the blood and tissues

galactorrhea
the production of breast milk in women who are not breast feeding

oxytocin
hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth

follicle-stimulating hormone
the hormone that stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova (eggs) in the ovaries of the female. in the male, it stimulates the production of sperm in the testicles

hemoglobin A1c testing
a blood test that measures the average blood glucose level over the previous 3-4 months

radioactive iodine uptake test
test using radioactive iodine administered orally to measure thyroid function

lobectomy
the surgical removal of a lobe of an organ

parathyroidectomy
the surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands

pancreat/o
pancreas

thyr/o
thyroid gland

crin/o
secrete

thyr/o, thyroid/o
thyroid gland

poly-
many

-ism
condition, state of

pineal/o
pineal gland

-dipsia
thirst

somat/o
body

thyroid/o
thyroid gland

parathyroid/o
parathyroid gland

pituitar/o
pituitary gland

adren/o
adrenal glands

glyc/o
glucose, sugar

thym/o
thymus gland

gonad/o
gonad, sex glands

acr/o
extremities (hands and feet), top, extreme point

Which term describes the excessive thirst that is symptomatic of diabetes insipidus? Polydipsia What gland secretes hormones that control the functions of the other endocrine glands? Pituitary WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

The products of the endocrine glands are __________. hormones Steroid hormones are lipid molecules synthesized from ___________. cholesterol WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample All hormones are …

Which term describes the excessive thirst that is symptomatic of diabetes insipidus? polydipsia Which gland is known as the master gland because it secretes hormones that control the functions of other endocrine glands? pituitary gland WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Be able to identify organs/tissues in endocrine system. hypothalamus pituitary gland pineal gland heart parathyroid gland thyroid gland adrenal gland thymus digestive tract kidney pancreas gonads Prostaglandins are examples of which type of hormones? eicosanoids WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Products of the body’s endocrine gland are A. hormones B. Enzymes C. Minerals D. Ions A. Hormones Hormones may consist of all the following except A. Steroids B. Proteins C. Carbohydrates D. Amines C. Carbohydrates WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Which term describes the excessive thirst that is symptomatic od diabetes insipidus? Polydipsia The ________ gland secretes hormones that control the functions of other endocrine glands Pituitary WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

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