chapter 13 med term

acromegaly
an enlargement of the extremities caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty

acr/o
extremities (hands and feet), top, extreme point

adren/o, adrenal/o
adrenal glands

crin/o, -crine
secrete

-dispia, dips/o
thirst

gest/o, gestat/o
bear, carry young or offspring

glyc/o, glycos/o
glucose, sugar

gonad/o
gonad, sex glands

-ism
condition, state of

-megaly
enlargement

pancreat/o
pancreas

parathyroid/o
parathyroid glands

phag/o, -phagia
eating, swallowing, eat

pineal/o
pineal gland

pituit/o, pituitar/o
pituitary gland

poly-
many

pubert/o
ripe age, adult

somat/o, soma-
body

thym/o
thymus gland

thyr/o, thyroid/o
thyroid gland

addison’s disease
a condition that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol or aldosterone

adrenalitis
inflammation of the adrenal glands

adrenocortiotropic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates the growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex

aldosteronism
an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone

anabolic steroids
man-made substance that are chemically related to male sex-hormones. they are used in the treatment of hormone problems in men and to help the body replace muscle mass lost due to disease. athletes sometimes use these steroids illegally to build muscle mass, a dangerous practice that can lead to lasting damage to the body

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
which is secreted by the hypothalamus and stored and released in the pituitary gland, helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted through the kidneys. in contrast diuretic is administered to increase the amount of urine secretion

antithyroid drugs
a medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone

calcitonin
is produced by the thyroid gland is a hormone that works with parathyroid hormone to decrease the calcium levels in the blood and

certified diabetes educator (CDE)
is a health care professional qualified to teach people with diabetes how to manage their disease

Conn’s syndrome
a disorder of the adrenal glands caused by the excessive production of aldosterone

cortisol (hydrocortisone)
is a corticosteroid that has an anti-inflammatory action. it regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body

cretinism
a congenital form of hypothroidism

cushing’s syndrome
a condition caused by prolonged exposure to high levels or cortisol

diabetes insipidus (DI)
a condition caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond to this hormone

diabetes mellitus (DM)
a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both

diabetic coma
a diabetic emergency caused by very high blood sugar

diabetic retinopathy
damage to the retina as a complication of uncontrolled diabetes

electrolytes
are mineral substances such as sodium and potassium that are not normally found in the blood. controlled by the adrenal glands

epinephrine (Epi, EPI), adrenaline
stimulates the sympathetic nervous system in response to physical injury or to mental stress such as fear. it makes the heart beat faster and can raise blood pressure. it can also help the liver release glucose (sugar) and limits the release of insulin

estrogen (E)
is a hormone secreted by the ovaries that is important in the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics and in regulation of the menstrual cycle

exophthalmos
an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit

fasting blood sugar (FBS)
a blood test to measure the glucose levels after the patient has not eaten for 8 – 12 hours

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
stimulates the secretions of estrogen and growth of the ova (eggs) in the ovaries of the female. in the male, it stimulates the production of sperm in the testicles

fructosamine test (FA)
a blood test that measures average glucose levels over the past three weeeks

gestational diabetes mellitus
the form of diabetes that occurs during some pregnancies

gigantism
abnormal growth of the entire body caused by excessive secretion of the growth hormone before puberty

glucagon
is the hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in response tom low levels of glucose

glucose (blood sugar)
is the basic form of energy used in the body

glycogen
is a form of starch that is stored in the liver, until needed for low levels of glucose and released in to the body

goiter
an abnormal, nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland

graves’ disease (GD)
an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system stimulates the thyroid to make excessive amounts of thyroid hormone

growth hormone (GH), somatotropic hormone
regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues

gynecomastia
the condition of excessive mammary development in the male

hashimoto’s thyroiditis
an autoimmune disorder in which the body’s own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland

hemoglobin A1c testing (HbA1c)
a blood testing that measures the average blood glucose over the previous three to four months

home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM)
test performed by the patient using a drop of blood to measure the current blood sugar level

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
hormone is either a blood or urine specimen which is usually an indication of pregnancy. a home pregnancy test is uses a urine specimen, whereas a pregnancy test based on blood specimen at a doctor’s office usually provides more reliable results

human growth hormone therapy (HGH)
prescribed growth hormone as medicine in order to stimulate growth and cell reproduction

hypercalcemia
abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood

hyperglycemia
an abnormally high concentrations of glucose in the blood

hypergonadism
the excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands

hyperinsulinism
a condition marked by excessive secretion of insuin

hyperpituitarism
the excess secretion of growth hormone that causes acromegaly and gigantism; condition of excessive secretion by the anterior lobe of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

hyperthyroidism/ thyrotoxicosis
is over production of thyroid hormones

hypoglycemia
an abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood

hypopituitarism
loss of function in the endocrine gland due to failure of the pituitary gland hormones which stimulate the gland’s function

hypothyroidism
a deficiency of thyroid secretion

insulin
is the hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets in response to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream. functions in 2 ways: when energy is needed, insulin allows glucose to enter the cells to be used as this energy, when additional glucose is not needed, insulin stimulates the liver to convert glucose into glycogen for storage

insulinoma
a benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin

insulin shock
a diabetic emergency caused by very low blood sugar

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
stimulates ovulation in females and secretion of testosterone in males

laparoscopic adrenalectomy
a minimally invasive procedure to surgically remove one or both adrenal glands

latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA)
a condition in which type 1 diabetes develops in adults

leptin
is a protein hormone secreted by fat cells that is involved in the regulation of appetite. leaves the fat cells and travels in the bloodstream to the brain, where it acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and burn fat stored in adipose tissue

luteinizing hormone (LH) (prolactin)
stimulates ovulation in the female and stimulates the secretion of testosterone

melatonin
influences the sleep-wakefulness portions of the circadian cycle
circadian cycle refers to the biological functions that occur within a 24 hour period

myxedema
a severe form of adult hypothyroidism caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secrection

norepinephrine
is both a hormone and a neurohormone. it is released as a hormone by the adrenal medulla and as a neurohormone by the sympathetic nervous system. it plays an important role in the fight or flight response by raising blood pressure, strengthening the heartbeat, and stimulating muscle contractions

oral hypoglycemic drugs
lowers blood sugar by causing the pancreas to release more insulin or increasing the body’s sensitivity to insulin

oxytocin
stimulates uterine contractions after childbirth, after childbirth controls hemorrhage and stimulates milk flow from the mammary glands,
pitocin is a synthetic form of oxytocin that is administered to induce or speed up labor

pancreatectomy
surgical removal of the pancreas

pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas; pancreas has important roles in both the digestive and endocrine systems; located behind the stomach

parathyroidectomy
surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands

pheochromocytoma
a benign tumor of the adrenal gland that causes the release of excess epinephrine and norepinephrine

pinealoma
a tumor of the pineal gland; disrupts the secretion of melatonin

pituitarism
disorder of pituitary function

pituitary adenoma
a slow growing benign tumor of the pituitary gland that may or may not cause excess hormone secretion

polydipsia
excessive thirst

polyuria
excessive urination

prediabetes
a condition in which the blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes

progesterone
hormone that is released during the second half of the menstrual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary, it function is to complete the preparation of the uterus for possible pregnancy

prolactinoma
a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much protein

puberty
is the process of physical by which a child’s body becomes an adult body that is capable of reproducing. it is marked by maturing of the genital organs, and by first occurrence of menstruation in the female. in the US the average age is 12 for girls and 11 for boys

radioactive iodine treatment (RAI)
oral administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells

radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU)
test using radioactive iodine administered orally to measure thyroid function

syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)
overproduction of the antidiuretic hormone ADH, leading to bloating, water retention, and electrolyte imbalance

steroids
large family of hormone like substances that share the same fat-soluble chemical structure, includes cholesterol, testosterone, and some anti-inflammatory drugs
are secreted by the endocrine glands or artificially produced as medications to relieve swelling and inflammation in conditions such as asthma

testosterone
is a steroid hormone secreted by the testicles and the adrenal cortex to stimulate the development of male secondary sex characteristics

thymitis
inflammation of the thymus gland

thymectomy
the surgical removal of the thymus gland

thymosin
plays an important part in the immune system stimulating the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells

thyroid replacement hormone medications
synthetic thyroid horomone levothyroxine or synthetic T3 hormones; used to treat underactive thyroid or hypothyroidism

thyroid stimulating hormone assay (TSH)
a diagnostic test to measure the circulating blood level of thyroid -stimulating hormone

thyroid storm/ thyrotoxic crisis
a relatively rare, life-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism

thyroxine (T4)
regulates the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other body systems, produced by the thyroid, rate secreted controlled by the thyroid -stimulating hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary

triiodothyronine (T3)
regulates the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other body systems, produced by the thyroid, rate secreted controlled by the thyroid -stimulating hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary

vasopressin
antidiuretic hormone; neurohypophysial hormone found in most mammals its primary functions are to retain water in the body and construct blood vessels

type 2 diabetes mellitus
an insulin resistance disorder in which glucose levels are elevated and characterized by polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia

type 1 diabetes mellitus
an autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells; symptoms include: polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, weight loss, blurred vision, extreme fatigue and slow healing; treated with diet and exercise and carefully regulating insulin replacement therapy

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Epinephrine An “adrenal rush” is caused by the release of ____, a hotmone of the adrenal medulla. Ovaries Eggs, estrogen, and progesterone are produced by the ___. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

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AIC blood test that measures glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to assess glucose control ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone; a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex, WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR …

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