-logist=one who specializes in the study of

-iatrist=one who specializes in treatment

Work with the diagnosis and treatment of mental health disorders.

Are medical doctors who specialize in the treatment of health disorders.

Disciple of psychiatrists.

Mental Health
A relative state of mind in which a person who is healthy is able to cope with and adjust to the recurrent stresses of everyday living in a culturally acceptable way.

Mental Illness
Functional impairment that substantially interferes with or limits one or more major life activities for a significant duration.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
American Psychiatric Association (APA) publishes the official listing of diagnosable mental disorders.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
Acceptable billing codes int he United States. DSM coordinates with ICD.


a-lack of
Inability to remain clam, still and free of anxiety.

Inability to remember either isolated parts of the past or one’s entire past; may be caused by brain damage or severe emotional traum.

Paralysis or immobility from psychological or emotional rather than physical causes.

Effort to conceal a gap in memory by fabricating detailed, often believable stories. Associated with alcohol abuse.

defense mechanism
Unconscious mechanism for psychological copying, adjustment, or self-preservation in the face of stress or a threat.

of an unpleasant situation or condition.

of intolerable aspects onto another individual.

Condition of confused, unfocused, irrational agitation. In mental disorders, agitation and confusion may also be accompanied by a more intense disorientation, incoherence, or fear, and illusions, hallucinations, and delusions.

Persistent belief in a demonstrable untruth or a provable inaccurate perception despite clear evidence to the contrary.

Mental disorder in which the individual experiences a progressive loss of memory, personality alterations, confusion, loss of touch with reality and stupor.

seeming unawareness of and disconnection with, one’s surroundings.

-lalia=condition of babbling
Repetition of words or phrases spoken by others.

Any unreal sensory perception that occurs with no external cause.

Inaccurate sensory perception based on a real stimulus; examples include mirages and interpreting music of wind as voices.

Normal psychological impulse drive associated with sensuality, expressions of desire, or creativity. Abnormality occurs only when such drives are excessively heightened or depressed.

-osis=abnormal condition
Disassociation with or impaired perception of reality; may be accompanied by hallucinations, delusions, incoherence, akathisia, and/or disorganized behavior.


persistent belief in an untruth

an inaccurate sensory perception based on a real stimulus.

are observable demonstrations of emotion that can be described in terms of quality, range and appropriateness.

blunted affect
moderately reduced range of affect

diminishment or loss of emotional expression sometimes observed in schizophrenia, mental retardation and some depressive disorders.

multiple, abrupt changes in affect seen in certain tupes of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

full/wide range of affect
generally appropriate emotional response.

Anticipation of impending danger and dread accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and breathing difficult not associated with an apparent stimulus.

phor/o=to carry
Generalized negative mood characterized by depression.

eu-good, well
phor/o=to carry
Exaggerated sense of physical and emotional well being not based on reality, disproportionate to the cause, or inappropriate to the situation.

-thymia=condition of the mind
Normal range of moods and emotions.

condition of the mind

thymus gland or to the mind

Absence of the ability to experience either pleasure or joy, even in the face of causative events.



one who specializes in treatment

condition of madness

condition of fear

Aspberger Disorder
Disorder characterized by impairment of social interaction and repetitive patterns of inappropriate behavior.

attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Series of syndromes that includes impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, and short attention span.

Condition of abnormal development of social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors.

conduct disorder
Any of a number of disorders characterized by patterns of persistent aggressive and defiant behaviors.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder
An example of a conduct disorders, is characterized by hostile, disobedient behavior.

mental retardation
Condition of subaverage intellectual ability, with impairments in social and educational functioning. The “intelligent quotient” (IQ) is a measure of an individual’s intellectual functioning compared with the general population.

Mild mental retardation
IQ range of 50-69, learning difficulties result.

Moderate mental retardation
IQ range of 35-49; support needed to function in society.

Severe mental retardation
IQ of 20-34; continuous need for support to live in society.

Profound mental retardation
IQ<20; severe self care limitations.

Rett disorder
Condition characterized by initial normal functioning followed b loss of social and intellectual functioning.

Tourette Syndrome
Group of involuntary behaviors that include the vocalization of words or sounds (sometimes obscene) and repetitive movements; vocal and multiple tic disorder.

Uses substances in ways that threaten health or impair social or economic functioning. Levels of abuse vary.

Acute Intoxication
-ation=process of
Episode of behavioral disturbance following ingestion of alcohol or psychotropic drugs.

delirium tremens
Acute and sometimes fatal delirium induced by the cessation of ingesting excessive amounts of alcohol over a long period of time.

dependence syndrome
Difficulty in controlling use of a drug.

harmful use
Pattern of drug use that causes damage to health.

State in which the body becomes accustomed to the substances ingested, hence the user requires greater amounts to create the desired effect.

withdrawal state
Group of symptoms that occur during cessation of the use of a regularly taken drug.

acute and transient psychotic disorders
Heterogenous group of disorders characterized by the acute onset of psychotic symptoms, such a delusions, hallucinations, and perceptual disturbances, and by the severe disruption of ordinary behavior.

acute onset
defined as a crescendo from a normal perceptual state to a clearly abnormal clinical picture in about two weeks or less.

persistent delusional disorders
Variety of disorders in which long-standing delusions constitute the only, or the most conspicuous, clinical, characteristic and cannot be classified as organic, schizophrenic, or affective.

Disorders characterized by fundamental distortions of thinking and perception, coupled with affects that are inappropriate or blunted.

Hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder.

Catatonic Schizophrenia
Dominated by prominent psychomotor disturbances that may alternate between extremes, such as hyperkinesis and stupor, and may be accompanied by a dreamlike state and hallucinations.

Disorganized Schizophrenia
Characterized by prominent affective changes, fleeting and fragmentary delusions and hallucinations, and irresponsible and unpredictable behavior.

Shallow, inappropriate mood, fleeting thoughts, social isolation, and incoherent speech are also present.

Paranoid schizophrenia
Dominated by relatively stable, persistent delusions, usually accompanied by auditory hallucations and perceptual disturbances in affect, volition (will), and speech.

schizotypal disorder
borderline schizophrenia, has none of the characteristic schizophrenic anomalies.

Anhedonia, eccentric behavior, cold affect and social isolation.

Mood Disorders
Affective Disorders

Show a disturbance of affect ranging from depression (with or without anxiety) to elation.

bipolar disorder
-ar=pertaining to

Disorder characterized by swings between an elevation of mood, increased energy and activity (hypomania and mania) and a lowering of mood and decreased energy and activity (depression).

-thymia=condition of the mind
Disorder characterized by recurring episodes of mild elation of depression that are not severe enough to warrant a diagnosis or dipolar disorder.

depressive disorder
Depression typically characterized by its degree (minimal, moderate, severe) or number of occurrences (single or recurrent, persistent). Patients exhibits dysphoria, reduction of energy, and decrease in activity. Symptoms include anhedonia, lack of ability to concentrate and fatigue. Patient may experience parasomnias (abnormal sleep patterns), diminished appetite and loss of self-esteem.

-mania=condition of madness
Disorder characterized by an inappropriate elevation of mood that may include positive and negative aspects. patient may report increased feelings of well-being, energy and activity. But may also report irritability and conceit.

seasonal affective disorder
Weather induced depression resulting from decreased exposure to sunlight in autumn and winter.

-phobia=condition of fear
Fear of heights

-phobia=condition of fear
Fear of leaving home and entering crowded places.

phobia=condition of fear
Fear of scrutiny by other people; also called social phobia.

-phobia=condition of fear

generalized anxiety disorder
One of the most common diagnoses assigned, but not specific to any particular situation or circumstance. Symptoms may include persistent nervousness, trembling, muscular tensions, sweating, lightheadedness, palpitations, dizziness and epigastric discomfort.

obsessive-compulsive disorder
Characterized by recurrent, distressing, and unavoidable preoccupations or irresistible drives to perform specific rituals (e.g., constantly checking locks, excessive hand washing) that the patient feels will prevent some harmful event.

panic disorder
Recurrent, unpredictable attacks of severe anxiety (panic) that are not restricted to any particular situation. Symptoms may include vertigo, chest pain and heart palpitations.

post traumatic stress disorder
Extended emotional response to a traumatic event. Symptoms may include flashbacks, recurring nightmares, anhedonia, insomnia, hypervigilance, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, and emotional blunting.

adjustment disorder
Disorder that tends to manifest during periods of stressful life changes (e.g., divorce, death, relocation, job loss). Symptoms include anxiety, impaired coping mechanisms, social dysfunction, and a reduced ability to perform normal daily activities.

dissociative identity disorder
Maladaptive coping with severe stress by developing one or more separate personalities. A less severe form, dissociative disorder or dissociative reaction, results in identify confusion accompanied by amnesia, a dreamlike state and somnambulism.

somatoform disorder
Any disorder that has unfounded physical complaints by the patient, despite medical assurance that no physiologic problem exists. One type of somatoform disorder it hypochondriacal disorder, which is the preoccupation with the possibility of having one mor more serious and progressive disorders.

anorexia nervosa
Prolonged refusal to eat adequate amounts of food and an altered perception of what constitutes a normal minimum body weight caused by an intense fear of becoming obese. Primarily affects adolescent females; emaciation and amenorrhea results.

bulimia nervosa
eating disorder in which the individual eats large quantities of food and then purges the body through self-induced vomiting or inappropriate use of laxatives.

Abnormal activation of physiologic functions during the sleep cycle. Examples include sleep terrors, in which repeated episodes of sudden awakening are accompanied by intense anxiety, agitation, amnesia, and somnambulism.

hypoactive sexual disorder
Indifference or unresponsiveness to sexual stimuli; inability to achieve orgasm during intercourse. Formerly called frigidity.

-mania=condition of madness
Relentless drive to achieve sexual orgasm in the female. In the male, the condition is alled satyriasis.

premature ejaculation
Involuntary, anxiety-induced ejaculation of semen during sexual activity.

sexual anhedonia
Inability to enjoy sexual pleasure.

Personality Disorders
Long-standing, inflexible, dysfunctional behavior patterns and personality traits that result in an inability to function successfully in society. Not caused by stress, and affected patients have very little to no insight into their disorder.

borderline personality disorder
Disorder characterized by impulsive, unpredictable mood and self-image, resulting in unstable interpersonal relationships and a tendency to see and respond to others as unwaveringly good or evil.

dissocial personality disorder
Disorder in which the patient shows a complete lack of interest in social obligations, to the extreme of showing antipathy for other individuals. Patients frustrate easily, are quick to display aggression, show a tendency to blame others, and do not change their behavior even after punishment. Also called *dyssocial personality disorder*.

schizoid personality disorder
Condition in which the patient withdraws into a fantasy world, with little need for social interaction. Most patients have a limited capacity to experience pleasure or to express their feelings.

-mania=condition of madness
Uncontrollable impulse to steal.

-mania=condition of madness
Uncontrollable impulse to set fires.

-mania=condition of madness
Uncontrollable impulse to pull one’s hair out by the roots.

Condition in which the patient derives sexual arousal from the exposure of his or her genitals to strangers.

Reliance on an object as a stimulus for sexual arousal and pleasure.

Sexual preference, either in fantasy or actuality, for children as a means of achieving sexual excitement and gratification.

Preference for sexual activity that involves inflicting or receiving pain and/or humiliation.

Condition in which an individual derives sexual pleasure and gratification from surreptitiously looking at individuals engaged in intimate behavior.

Multiaxial Assessment Diagnosis
Diagnostic tool measuring mental health of the individual across five axes.

Axis I – Clinical Disorders
Axis II – Personality Disorder/Mental Retardation
Axis III – General Medical Conditions
Diagnosis Codes

Axis IV – Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
Statement of factors influencing the patient’s mental health
(e.g., lac of social supports, unemployment)

Axis V – Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF)
Numerical scale that summarizes a patient’s overall functioning.

Mental Status Examination
Diagnostic Procedure to determine a patient’s current mental state. It includes assessment of the patient’s appearance, affect, thought processes, cognitive function, insight and judgement.

Positive Emission Tomography
(PET) scans
Examine and map the metabolic activity of the brain.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Assessment of personality characteristics through a battery of forced-choice questions.

behavioral therapy
Therapeutic attempt to alter an undesired behavior by substituting a new response or set of responses to a given stimulus.

cognitive therapy
Wide variety of treatment techniques that attempt to help the individual alter inaccurate or unhealth perceptions and patterns of thinkin.

ana-up, apart
Behavioral treatment developed initially by Sigmund Freud to analyze and treat any dysfunctional effects of unconscious factors on a patients mental state. This therapy uses techniques that include analysis of defense mechanisms and dream interpretation.

de-lack, removal
-ation=process of
Removal of a chemical substance (drug or alcohol) as an initial step in treatment of a chemically dependent individual.

electroconvulsive therapy
Method of inducing convulsions to treat affective disorders in patients who have been resistant or unresponsive to drug therapy.

light therapy
Exposure of the body to light waves to treat patients with depression due to seasonal fluctuations.

Drugs intended to discourage use of alcohol.

Medications intended to relieve symptoms of depressed mood.

Antipsychotics or neuroleptics
Medications intended to control psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions.

Drugs that promote sleep.

Mood Stabilizers
Drugs that balance neurotransmitters in the brain to reduce or prevent acute mood swings (mania or depression).

NMDA Receptor Antagonists
Agents used to preserve cognitive function in patients suffering from progressive memory loss.

Sedatives and Sedative Hypnotics
Overlapping classes of central nervous system depressant drugs that exert a calming effect with or without inducing sleep.

Drugs that generally increase synaptic activity or targeted neurons to increase alertness.

Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Delirium Tremens

Electroconvulsive Therapy

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Seasonal Affective Disorder

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