mind
psych/o
thym/o
phren/o

treatment
iatr/o

psychologist
psych/o-mind
-logist=one who specializes in the study of

psychiatrist
psych/o-mind
-iatrist=one who specializes in treatment

Psychologists
Work with the diagnosis and treatment of mental health disorders.

Psychiatrists
Are medical doctors who specialize in the treatment of health disorders.

Psychiatry
Disciple of psychiatrists.

Mental Health
A relative state of mind in which a person who is healthy is able to cope with and adjust to the recurrent stresses of everyday living in a culturally acceptable way.

Mental Illness
Functional impairment that substantially interferes with or limits one or more major life activities for a significant duration.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
American Psychiatric Association (APA) publishes the official listing of diagnosable mental disorders.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
Acceptable billing codes int he United States. DSM coordinates with ICD.

attraction
phil/o

akathisia
a-lack of
kathis/o=sitting
-ia=condition
Inability to remain clam, still and free of anxiety.

amneia
Inability to remember either isolated parts of the past or one’s entire past; may be caused by brain damage or severe emotional traum.

catatonia
cata-down
ton/o=tension
-ia=condition
Paralysis or immobility from psychological or emotional rather than physical causes.

confabulation
Effort to conceal a gap in memory by fabricating detailed, often believable stories. Associated with alcohol abuse.

defense mechanism
Unconscious mechanism for psychological copying, adjustment, or self-preservation in the face of stress or a threat.

denial
of an unpleasant situation or condition.

projection
of intolerable aspects onto another individual.

delirium
Condition of confused, unfocused, irrational agitation. In mental disorders, agitation and confusion may also be accompanied by a more intense disorientation, incoherence, or fear, and illusions, hallucinations, and delusions.

delusion
Persistent belief in a demonstrable untruth or a provable inaccurate perception despite clear evidence to the contrary.

dementia
Mental disorder in which the individual experiences a progressive loss of memory, personality alterations, confusion, loss of touch with reality and stupor.

stupor
seeming unawareness of and disconnection with, one’s surroundings.

echolalia
echo-reverberation
-lalia=condition of babbling
Repetition of words or phrases spoken by others.

hallucination
Any unreal sensory perception that occurs with no external cause.

illusion
Inaccurate sensory perception based on a real stimulus; examples include mirages and interpreting music of wind as voices.

libido
Normal psychological impulse drive associated with sensuality, expressions of desire, or creativity. Abnormality occurs only when such drives are excessively heightened or depressed.

psychosis
psych/o=mind
-osis=abnormal condition
Disassociation with or impaired perception of reality; may be accompanied by hallucinations, delusions, incoherence, akathisia, and/or disorganized behavior.

somnambulism
somn/o=sleep
ambul/o=walking
-ism=condition
Sleepwalking.

delusion
persistent belief in an untruth

illusion
an inaccurate sensory perception based on a real stimulus.

Affects
are observable demonstrations of emotion that can be described in terms of quality, range and appropriateness.

blunted affect
moderately reduced range of affect

flat
diminishment or loss of emotional expression sometimes observed in schizophrenia, mental retardation and some depressive disorders.

labile
multiple, abrupt changes in affect seen in certain tupes of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

full/wide range of affect
generally appropriate emotional response.

anxiety
Anticipation of impending danger and dread accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and breathing difficult not associated with an apparent stimulus.

dysphoria
dys-abnormal
phor/o=to carry
-ia=condition
Generalized negative mood characterized by depression.

euphoria
eu-good, well
phor/o=to carry
-ia=condition
Exaggerated sense of physical and emotional well being not based on reality, disproportionate to the cause, or inappropriate to the situation.

euthumia
eu-good
-thymia=condition of the mind
Normal range of moods and emotions.

-thymia
condition of the mind

thym/o
thymus gland or to the mind

anhedonia
an-without
hedon/o=pleasure
-ia=condition
Absence of the ability to experience either pleasure or joy, even in the face of causative events.

-ia
condition

-ism
condition

-iatrist
one who specializes in treatment

-mania
condition of madness

-phobia
condition of fear

Aspberger Disorder
Disorder characterized by impairment of social interaction and repetitive patterns of inappropriate behavior.

attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Series of syndromes that includes impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, and short attention span.

autism
auto-self
ism=condition
Condition of abnormal development of social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors.

conduct disorder
Any of a number of disorders characterized by patterns of persistent aggressive and defiant behaviors.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder
ODD
An example of a conduct disorders, is characterized by hostile, disobedient behavior.

mental retardation
(MR)
Condition of subaverage intellectual ability, with impairments in social and educational functioning. The “intelligent quotient” (IQ) is a measure of an individual’s intellectual functioning compared with the general population.

Mild mental retardation
IQ range of 50-69, learning difficulties result.

Moderate mental retardation
IQ range of 35-49; support needed to function in society.

Severe mental retardation
IQ of 20-34; continuous need for support to live in society.

Profound mental retardation
IQ<20; severe self care limitations.

Rett disorder
Condition characterized by initial normal functioning followed b loss of social and intellectual functioning.

Tourette Syndrome
Group of involuntary behaviors that include the vocalization of words or sounds (sometimes obscene) and repetitive movements; vocal and multiple tic disorder.

Abuser
Uses substances in ways that threaten health or impair social or economic functioning. Levels of abuse vary.

Acute Intoxication
in-in
toxic/o=poison
-ation=process of
Episode of behavioral disturbance following ingestion of alcohol or psychotropic drugs.

delirium tremens
(DTs)
Acute and sometimes fatal delirium induced by the cessation of ingesting excessive amounts of alcohol over a long period of time.

dependence syndrome
Difficulty in controlling use of a drug.

harmful use
Pattern of drug use that causes damage to health.

tolerance
State in which the body becomes accustomed to the substances ingested, hence the user requires greater amounts to create the desired effect.

withdrawal state
Group of symptoms that occur during cessation of the use of a regularly taken drug.

acute and transient psychotic disorders
Heterogenous group of disorders characterized by the acute onset of psychotic symptoms, such a delusions, hallucinations, and perceptual disturbances, and by the severe disruption of ordinary behavior.

acute onset
defined as a crescendo from a normal perceptual state to a clearly abnormal clinical picture in about two weeks or less.

persistent delusional disorders
Variety of disorders in which long-standing delusions constitute the only, or the most conspicuous, clinical, characteristic and cannot be classified as organic, schizophrenic, or affective.

schizophrenia
Disorders characterized by fundamental distortions of thinking and perception, coupled with affects that are inappropriate or blunted.

Hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder.

Catatonic Schizophrenia
Dominated by prominent psychomotor disturbances that may alternate between extremes, such as hyperkinesis and stupor, and may be accompanied by a dreamlike state and hallucinations.

Disorganized Schizophrenia
Characterized by prominent affective changes, fleeting and fragmentary delusions and hallucinations, and irresponsible and unpredictable behavior.

Shallow, inappropriate mood, fleeting thoughts, social isolation, and incoherent speech are also present.

Paranoid schizophrenia
Dominated by relatively stable, persistent delusions, usually accompanied by auditory hallucations and perceptual disturbances in affect, volition (will), and speech.

schizotypal disorder
borderline schizophrenia, has none of the characteristic schizophrenic anomalies.

Anhedonia, eccentric behavior, cold affect and social isolation.

Mood Disorders
Affective Disorders

Show a disturbance of affect ranging from depression (with or without anxiety) to elation.

bipolar disorder
(BP)
bi-two
pol/o=pole
-ar=pertaining to

Disorder characterized by swings between an elevation of mood, increased energy and activity (hypomania and mania) and a lowering of mood and decreased energy and activity (depression).

cyclothymia
cycl/o=recurring
-thymia=condition of the mind
Disorder characterized by recurring episodes of mild elation of depression that are not severe enough to warrant a diagnosis or dipolar disorder.

depressive disorder
Depression typically characterized by its degree (minimal, moderate, severe) or number of occurrences (single or recurrent, persistent). Patients exhibits dysphoria, reduction of energy, and decrease in activity. Symptoms include anhedonia, lack of ability to concentrate and fatigue. Patient may experience parasomnias (abnormal sleep patterns), diminished appetite and loss of self-esteem.

hypomania
hypo-decreased
-mania=condition of madness
Disorder characterized by an inappropriate elevation of mood that may include positive and negative aspects. patient may report increased feelings of well-being, energy and activity. But may also report irritability and conceit.

seasonal affective disorder
(SAD)
Weather induced depression resulting from decreased exposure to sunlight in autumn and winter.

acrophobia
acro=heights
-phobia=condition of fear
Fear of heights

agoraphobia
agora-marketplace
-phobia=condition of fear
Fear of leaving home and entering crowded places.

anthropophobia
anthrop/o=man
phobia=condition of fear
Fear of scrutiny by other people; also called social phobia.

claustrophobia
claustr/o=closing
-phobia=condition of fear

generalized anxiety disorder
(GAD)
One of the most common diagnoses assigned, but not specific to any particular situation or circumstance. Symptoms may include persistent nervousness, trembling, muscular tensions, sweating, lightheadedness, palpitations, dizziness and epigastric discomfort.

obsessive-compulsive disorder
(OCD)
Characterized by recurrent, distressing, and unavoidable preoccupations or irresistible drives to perform specific rituals (e.g., constantly checking locks, excessive hand washing) that the patient feels will prevent some harmful event.

panic disorder
Recurrent, unpredictable attacks of severe anxiety (panic) that are not restricted to any particular situation. Symptoms may include vertigo, chest pain and heart palpitations.

post traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD)
Extended emotional response to a traumatic event. Symptoms may include flashbacks, recurring nightmares, anhedonia, insomnia, hypervigilance, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, and emotional blunting.

adjustment disorder
Disorder that tends to manifest during periods of stressful life changes (e.g., divorce, death, relocation, job loss). Symptoms include anxiety, impaired coping mechanisms, social dysfunction, and a reduced ability to perform normal daily activities.

dissociative identity disorder
Maladaptive coping with severe stress by developing one or more separate personalities. A less severe form, dissociative disorder or dissociative reaction, results in identify confusion accompanied by amnesia, a dreamlike state and somnambulism.

somatoform disorder
Any disorder that has unfounded physical complaints by the patient, despite medical assurance that no physiologic problem exists. One type of somatoform disorder it hypochondriacal disorder, which is the preoccupation with the possibility of having one mor more serious and progressive disorders.

anorexia nervosa
an-without
orex/o=appetite
-ia=condition
Prolonged refusal to eat adequate amounts of food and an altered perception of what constitutes a normal minimum body weight caused by an intense fear of becoming obese. Primarily affects adolescent females; emaciation and amenorrhea results.

bulimia nervosa
eating disorder in which the individual eats large quantities of food and then purges the body through self-induced vomiting or inappropriate use of laxatives.

parasomnia
para-abnormal
somn/o=sleep
-ia=condition
Abnormal activation of physiologic functions during the sleep cycle. Examples include sleep terrors, in which repeated episodes of sudden awakening are accompanied by intense anxiety, agitation, amnesia, and somnambulism.

hypoactive sexual disorder
Indifference or unresponsiveness to sexual stimuli; inability to achieve orgasm during intercourse. Formerly called frigidity.

nymphomania
nymph/o=woman
-mania=condition of madness
Relentless drive to achieve sexual orgasm in the female. In the male, the condition is alled satyriasis.

premature ejaculation
Involuntary, anxiety-induced ejaculation of semen during sexual activity.

sexual anhedonia
an-without
hedon/o=pleasure
-ia=condition
Inability to enjoy sexual pleasure.

Personality Disorders
Long-standing, inflexible, dysfunctional behavior patterns and personality traits that result in an inability to function successfully in society. Not caused by stress, and affected patients have very little to no insight into their disorder.

borderline personality disorder
Disorder characterized by impulsive, unpredictable mood and self-image, resulting in unstable interpersonal relationships and a tendency to see and respond to others as unwaveringly good or evil.

dissocial personality disorder
Disorder in which the patient shows a complete lack of interest in social obligations, to the extreme of showing antipathy for other individuals. Patients frustrate easily, are quick to display aggression, show a tendency to blame others, and do not change their behavior even after punishment. Also called *dyssocial personality disorder*.

schizoid personality disorder
Condition in which the patient withdraws into a fantasy world, with little need for social interaction. Most patients have a limited capacity to experience pleasure or to express their feelings.

kleptomania
klept/o=steal
-mania=condition of madness
Uncontrollable impulse to steal.

pyromania
pyr/o=fire
-mania=condition of madness
Uncontrollable impulse to set fires.

trichotillomania
trich/o=hair
till/o=pulling
-mania=condition of madness
Uncontrollable impulse to pull one’s hair out by the roots.

exhibitionism
Condition in which the patient derives sexual arousal from the exposure of his or her genitals to strangers.

fetishism
Reliance on an object as a stimulus for sexual arousal and pleasure.

pedophilia
ped/o=child
phil/o=attraction
-ia=condition
Sexual preference, either in fantasy or actuality, for children as a means of achieving sexual excitement and gratification.

sadomasochism
Preference for sexual activity that involves inflicting or receiving pain and/or humiliation.

voyeurism
Condition in which an individual derives sexual pleasure and gratification from surreptitiously looking at individuals engaged in intimate behavior.

DSM-IV/TR
Multiaxial Assessment Diagnosis
Diagnostic tool measuring mental health of the individual across five axes.

Axis I – Clinical Disorders
Axis II – Personality Disorder/Mental Retardation
Axis III – General Medical Conditions
Diagnosis Codes

Axis IV – Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
Statement of factors influencing the patient’s mental health
(e.g., lac of social supports, unemployment)

Axis V – Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF)
Numerical scale that summarizes a patient’s overall functioning.

Mental Status Examination
Diagnostic Procedure to determine a patient’s current mental state. It includes assessment of the patient’s appearance, affect, thought processes, cognitive function, insight and judgement.

Positive Emission Tomography
(PET) scans
Examine and map the metabolic activity of the brain.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
(MMPI)
Assessment of personality characteristics through a battery of forced-choice questions.

behavioral therapy
Therapeutic attempt to alter an undesired behavior by substituting a new response or set of responses to a given stimulus.

cognitive therapy
Wide variety of treatment techniques that attempt to help the individual alter inaccurate or unhealth perceptions and patterns of thinkin.

psychoanalysis
psych/o=mind
ana-up, apart
-lysis=breakdown
Behavioral treatment developed initially by Sigmund Freud to analyze and treat any dysfunctional effects of unconscious factors on a patients mental state. This therapy uses techniques that include analysis of defense mechanisms and dream interpretation.

detoxification
de-lack, removal
toxic/o=poison
-ation=process of
Removal of a chemical substance (drug or alcohol) as an initial step in treatment of a chemically dependent individual.

electroconvulsive therapy
(ECT)
Method of inducing convulsions to treat affective disorders in patients who have been resistant or unresponsive to drug therapy.

light therapy
Exposure of the body to light waves to treat patients with depression due to seasonal fluctuations.

antialcoholics
Drugs intended to discourage use of alcohol.

antidepressants
Medications intended to relieve symptoms of depressed mood.

Antipsychotics or neuroleptics
Medications intended to control psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions.

Hypnotics
Drugs that promote sleep.

Mood Stabilizers
Drugs that balance neurotransmitters in the brain to reduce or prevent acute mood swings (mania or depression).

NMDA Receptor Antagonists
Agents used to preserve cognitive function in patients suffering from progressive memory loss.

Sedatives and Sedative Hypnotics
Overlapping classes of central nervous system depressant drugs that exert a calming effect with or without inducing sleep.

Stimulants
Drugs that generally increase synaptic activity or targeted neurons to increase alertness.

ADHD
Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

DTs
Delirium Tremens

ECT
Electroconvulsive Therapy

OCD
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

SAD
Seasonal Affective Disorder

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