Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders

Historical Reasons for the development of psychological disorders
salem

Anxiety- Levels of anxiety

Specific Phobias
persistent fear of a specific object or situation

agoraphobia
fear of open, crowded places

claustrophobia
fear of tight, small places

social phobia
an irrational, excessive fear of public scrutiny

panic attack

examples of self-defeating behaviors

panic attack with agoraphobia
panic attacks seem to come form nowhere. Thus some people who have had them stay home for fear of having an attack in public. they are diagnosed as having panic disorders with agoraphobia

generalized Anxiety Disorder

obsession
are recurrent, anxiety provoking thoughts or images that seem irrational and beyond control

Symptoms of OCD

Purpose of compulsions
to reduce anxiety connected with obsessions

Flat affect
too little emotional response

PTSD
Post-traumatic stress disorder: a disorder that follows a distressing event outside the range of normal human experience and that is characterized by features such as intense fear, avoidance.

Acute Stress Disorder
a disorder like PTSD, that is characterized by feelings of anxiety and helplessness and caused by a traumatic event; acute stress disorder occurs within a month of the event and lasts from 2 days to 4 weeks.

Biological factors related to anxiety
anxiety disorders tend to run in families
Twin studies find a higher rate of match for anxiety disorders among identical twins than among fraternal twins

Neurotransmiter chemical implicated in anxiety
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid )

somatoform disorders
disorders in which people complain of physical (somatic) problems event though no physical abnormality can be found

conversion disorder
a disorder in which anxiety or unconscious conflicts are “converted” into physical symptoms that often have the effect of helping the person cope with anxiety or conflict

hypochondriasis
a somatoform disorder characterized by persistent belief that one is ill despite lack of medical findings

body dysmorphic disorder
a somatoform disorder characterized by preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated physical deft in ones own appearance

La Belle Indifference
a french term descriptive of the lack of concern for their (imagined) medical problem sometimes shown by people with conversion disorders

dissociative amnesia
a dissociative disorder marked by loss of memory or self-identity; skills and general knowledge are usually retained.

dissociative fugue
a dissociative disorder in which one experiences amnesia and then flees to a new location.

dissociative identity disorder
(DID) (formally termed multiple personality disorder) a disorder in which a person appears to have tow or more distinct identities or personalities that may alternately emerge

paranoid personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by persistent suspiciousness but not involving the disorganization of paranoid schizophrenia

DSM IV-TR
most widely used classification scheme of psychological disorder. it provides information about a persons overall functioning as well as a diagnose. people may receive diagnose for clinical syndromes or personality disorder, or both.

schizophrenia
severe psychological disorder characterized by disturbances in -thought and language
-perception and attention
-motor activity
-mood
-withdrawal and absorption in fantasy

schizophrenia positive symptoms
those symptoms of schizophrenia that indicate the presence of inappropriate behavior, such as hallucinations, delusions, agitation, and inappropriate giggling

schizophrenia negative symptoms
those symptoms of schizophrenia that reflect the absence of appropriate behavior such as blank faces, monotonic voices, and motionless bodies

delusions
false, persistent beliefs that are unsubstantiated by sensory or objective evidence

delusion of persecutions
A delusion that one is being persecuted or conspired against, characteristic of paranoid schizophrenia.

hallucination
that the person cannot distinguish from reality

paranoid schizophrenia
a type of schizophrenia characterized primarily by delusions- commonly of persecution- and by vivid hallucinations

catatonic schizophrenia
a type of schizophrenia characterized by striking motor impairment

waxy flexibility
a feature of catatonic schizophrenia in which people can be molded into postures that they maintain for quite some time.

biological perspective for schizophrenia
genetic vulnerability; overutilizton of dopamine; enlarged ventricles; deficiendy in grey matter, viral infections; birth complications; malnutrition

Neurochemical substance implicated with schizophrenia
Dopamine

sociacultural perspective of schizophrenia
poverty; overcrowding; poor quality of parenting; malnutrition

major depression
a serious to severe depressive disorder in which the person may show loss of appetite, psycho motor retardation and impaired reality testing

suicide incidence

bipolar symptoms
unpredictable mood swings.

rapid flight of ideas in bipolar disorders
rapid speech and topic changes, characteristic of manic behavior

age groups with higher incidence of suicide

appropriate responses to someone contemplating suicide

manic
showing wild and apparently deranged excitement and energy.

A man spends several hours in front of his mirror each morning in an effort to put every hair on his head in its exact place before leaving for work. This concern for trivial details suggests
unusual behavior.

A woman has been brought to the emergency room because she says that she has been seeing green ooze running down the walls of her bedroom. She is demonstrating
faulty perceptions

A man preparing for his professional licensing examination becomes agitated and threatens to kill himself if he doesn’t pass the exam on the first try. He is subsequently admitted for a psychiatric examination, and the doctor learns that the young man has neglected everything because he is terrified of failing his examination. The doctor most likely believes that the man exhibits __________ behavior.
self defeating

The DSM-IV classification system contains information about
psychological disorders

The DSM-IV groups disorders on the basis of
observable symptoms

Georgina’s speech is very confusing and rarely makes sense. She makes funny faces and is often heard giggling. Georgina exhibits __________ schizophrenia.
disorganized

A woman has had a series of panic attacks and lives in fear of future attacks. In addition, she is now afraid to leave her home because she is afraid of having an attack in public. She discusses the problem with her doctor. What diagnosis is most likely?
panic disorder with agoraphobia

It is believed that __________ tend to reduce the anxiety connected with obsessions.
compulsions

Sheryl’s mom always screamed whenever she saw a spider. Sheryl now has the same reaction to spiders. According to __________ theorist, Sheryl acquired the behavior pattern by watching her mom.
social cognitive

Twin studies and adoption studies are methods to discover the role of __________ factors in the development of psychological disorders.
biological

Somatoform disorders involve
the conversion of anxiety into a physical form

Somatoform disorders are often:
an unconscious attempt to gain attention or avoid anxiety provoking situations.

People diagnosed with __________ insist that they are suffering from a serious disease or medical condition. They are known to seek help from many doctors, and personal relationships suffer as they expect consideration for their supposed illness.
hypochondriasis

_____ thinking is a factor in both depression and major depression.
Suicidal

The symptoms of rapid or “pressured” speech, the tendency to switch from topic to topic, and an inability to listen to the comments of others are often observed in patients with bipolar disorder. These symptoms are often referred to as
flight of ideas

Vulnerability to depression has been noted among
women

Pessimism and self-criticism are __________ factors in depression.
congnitive

Suicide is often associated with which of the following?
none of the above

Schizophrenic symptoms include core problems with
memory, attention, thinking, and communication.

While standing on a bus, a man overhears a discussion about a person who is about to be terminated from his job. The man decides that the people on the bus are talking about him and that he has been targeted for termination. The man demonstrates
delusions of reference.

systematized delusions of grandeur, persecution, and/or jealousy, often involving themes of persecution and wrongdoing, are observed in patients diagnosed with
paranoid schizophrenia.

Waxy flexibility is a feature of __________ schizophrenia.
catatonic

It appears that many people with schizophrenia have undergone a variety of birth and pregnancy complications. These findings suggest that atypical __________ may be
central nervous system development

An important neurotransmitter involved in schizophrenic symptoms is
dopamine

psychotherapy treats
-psychological disorders, adjustment problems, and personal growth issues.

Carrie wants to increase her self-esteem and become the best spouse she can be. Which approach is likely to help Carrie be successful?
psychotherapy

A client reclines as they talk about whatever comes to mind. The therapist listens and notices relationships or time periods that the client avoids talking about. This is the __________ therapeutic method.
psychoanalysis

______ originated client-centered therapy.
carl rogers

Dr. Fry conducts research on the attitudes of youth and dating in schools. He is a psychologist in the area of __________.
social psychology

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Postpartum Psychosis A rare and severe form of depression that occurs in women just after giving birth and include delusional thinking and hallucinations. Postpartum Depression Depression occurring within a year after giving birth in about 10 percent of women and …

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Psychological disorders can be classified into various categories depending on the nature of the disorder, the severity of the symptoms, and the outcome. Classification of a psychological disorder helps in the determining the diagnosis, treatment, and the prognosis of the …

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