1.Dramatic mood swings are characteristic of a condition known as _____ disorder.
A) major depressive
B) bipolar
C) obsessive-compulsive
D) dissociative identity
B

2.Alex is prone to drastic mood swings. Alex may suffer from a condition known as _____ disorder.
A) bipolar
B) antisocial personality
C) obsessive-compulsive
D) dissociative identity
A

3.A _____ disorder is a set of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that are significantly distressing and disabling.
A) chemical
B) behavioral
C) psychological
D) physiological
C

4.Major depressive disorder is a set of distressing, disabling cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms. Major depressive disorder is a _____ disorder.
A) mental
B) behavioral
C) physiological
D) psychological
D

5.The subfield in which psychological disorders are studied is generally known as _____ psychology.
A) cognitive
B) developmental
C) medical
D) abnormal
D

6.Dr. Alfonso investigates the etiology of psychological disorders. Dr. Alonso’s field of specialization is known as _____ psychology.
A) abnormal
B) developmental
C) medical
D) pathological
A

10.Pam is experiencing a major depressive episode. She is upset that she doesn’t feel “like herself,” and it bothers her that she has too little energy to participate fully in her family and work life. Pam’s discomfort is an example of the _____ associated with psychological abnormality.
A) distress
B) dysfunction
C) deviance
D) disability
A

7.Which is NOT one of the “three Ds” of psychological disorders mentioned in the textbook?
A) distress
B) dysfunction
C) deviance
D) disability
D

9.Recall the “three Ds” of psychological disorders mentioned in the textbook. The extent to which a behavior falls outside society’s standards or rules is referred to as its:
A) distress.
B) dysfunction.
C) deviance.
D) disability.
C

8.Recall the “three Ds” of psychological disorders mentioned in the textbook. The extent to which a behavior interferes with a person’s daily life and relationships is referred to as its:
A) distress.
B) dysfunction.
C) deviance.
D) disability.
B

11.Individuals with antisocial personality disorder tend to break the law and violate others’ rights. Because these behaviors fall outside society’s standards and rules, they reflect the _____ often associated with psychological abnormality.
A) disability
B) deviance
C) distress
D) dysfunction
B

12.Dex is troubled by his own methamphetamine use; moreover, he has been written up twice lately for missing shifts at work. Dex’s case illustrates the _____ associated with psychological abnormality.
A) distress
B) dysfunction
C) deviance
D) distress and dysfunction
D

13.Recall the “three Ds” of psychological disorders mentioned in the textbook. Which “D” is correctly matched with its definition?
A) distress – the extent to which a behavior falls outside society’s standards or rules
B) dysfunction – the extent to which a behavior interferes with daily life and relationships
C) deviance – the extent to which behaviors or emotions cause an individual to become upset or uncomfortable
D) disability – whether a person’s behavior qualifies him or her for disability
B

14.According to the textbook, normal and abnormal behavior are BEST viewed as:
A) discrete categories.
B) orthogonal dimensions.
C) ends of a continuum.
D) parallel continua.
C

15.Hoang lives in Vietnam. He is terrified that his penis will disappear into his abdomen. Hoang appears to suffer from a disorder called:
A) koro.
B) susto.
C) ataque de nervios.
D) taijin kyofu.
A

16.Individuals suffering from _____, a disorder seen in _____, believe their souls have left their bodies. The disorder usually develops after a frightening situation.
A) koro; Latin America
B) koro; Southeast Asia
C) susto; Latin America
D) susto; Southeast Asia
C

17.Which psychological disorder is NOT universal?
A) depression
B) koro
C) schizophrenia
D) bipolar disorder
B

18.Insanity is a _____ term.
A) legal
B) psychological
C) medical
D) psychiatric
A

19.Which choice BEST expresses how many states offer some form of the insanity legal defense?
A) Fewer than half of them do.
B) About half of them do.
C) Almost all of them do.
D) All of them do.
C

20.The insanity defense is successful in about _____ of the cases in which it is used.
A) 5%-10%
B) 10%-25%
C) 35%-50%
D) 65%-75%
B

21.A _____ is a negative attitude about groups of people based on certain shared traits or characteristics.
A) script
B) schema
C) stereotype
D) stigma
D

22.The first version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders was published in:
A) 1947.
B) 1952.
C) 1973.
D) 1994.
B

23.In round numbers, the DSM-5 lists approximately _____ disorders.
A) 100
B) 150
C) 200
D) 250
B

24.The primary purpose of the DSM-5 is to provide:
A) descriptions of disorders.
B) recommendations for treatment of disorders.
C) explanations of the causes of disorders.
D) the frequency with which disorders occur.
A

25.Many of the criticisms of the DSM-5 revolve around:
A) its failure to recommend courses of treatment.
B) the potential effects of labeling people based on inflexible categories.
C) its failure to keep up with advances in the field.
D) its focus on the causes of abnormal behavior instead of its symptoms.
B

26.During David Rosenhan’s study, in which several colleagues were admitted into mental hospitals, which group was most likely to detect that these secret “pseudopatients” actually did not suffer from mental illness?
A) actual mental patients
B) psychiatrists
C) psychologists
D) nurses
A

27.How might the results of David Rosenhan’s study inform an evaluation of the DSM-5’s system of classifying psychological disorders?
A) The study’s results are reassuring because they suggest that diagnostic labels have no impact on how a person’s behavior is perceived.
B) The study’s results are reassuring because they suggest that diagnostic labels strongly affect how a person’s behavior is perceived.
C) The study’s results are worrying because they suggest that diagnostic labels have no impact on how a person’s behavior is perceived.
D) The study’s results are worrying because they suggest that diagnostic labels strongly affect how a person’s behavior is perceived.
D

28.Data from a large-scale study reveals that about _____% of Americans will experience symptoms that meet the criteria for a psychological disorder.
A) 10%
B) 25%
C) 35%
D) 50%
D

29.Approximately _____ of psychological disorders are diagnosed by age 30.
A) 40%
B) 50%
C) 70%
D) 90%
C

30.Compared to chronic medical conditions, psychological disorders are _____ impairing and are _____ often treated.
A) less; less
B) less; more
C) more; less
D) more; more
C

31._____ refers to the occurrence of two or more psychological disorders at the same time.
A) Etiology
B) Prevalence
C) Prognosis
D) Comorbidity
D

32.Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is sometimes diagnosed alongside substance use disorder in the same individual. This is an example of:
A) etiology.
B) prevalence.
C) comorbidity.
D) prognosis.
C

33.Klaus has been diagnosed not only with major depressive disorder, but also generalized anxiety disorder. Klaus’ case illustrates:
A) comorbidity.
B) prevalence.
C) etiology.
D) prognosis.
A

34.In any given year, just over 1 in _____ Americans are diagnosed with a psychological disorder.
A) 4
B) 5
C) 8
D) 10
A

35.In any given year, the most common type of psychological disorder is:
A) mood disorders.
B) anxiety disorders.
C) schizophrenia.
D) substance disorders.
B

36.The term _____ refers to the causes of psychological disorders.
A) symptomology
B) etiology
C) prognosis
D) prevalence
B

37.Specific neurotransmitters are being implicated in an increasing number of psychological disorders. This fact most directly affirms the _____ perspective on abnormality.
A) psychological
B) medical
C) biopsychosocial
D) sociocultural
B

38.The textbook suggests that the language often used to discuss psychological disorders BEST reflects the _____ perspective.
A) sociocultural
B) psychological
C) biopsychosocial
D) medical
D

39.Dr. Chapman believes that major depression is best treated through the prescription of drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin in the brain. Dr. Chapman appears to endorse the _____ model of the etiology of psychological disorders.
A) medical
B) psychological
C) sociocultural
D) biopsychosocial
A

40.Dr. Fritsch and Dr. Gupta are debating why depression is more prevalent among women than among men. “Women have fewer economic opportunities than do men, and they experience role conflicts more often,” notes Dr. Fritsch. Dr. Gupta remarks that women experience fluctuations in estrogen levels, whereas men do not. Dr. Fritsch appears to take a _____ approach to depressive disorders, whereas Dr. Gupta seems to favor a _____ approach.
A) medical; sociocultural
B) psychological; medical
C) sociocultural; medical
D) sociocultural; psychological
C

41.”Negative reinforcement contributes to the maintenance of not only phobias but also obsessive-compulsive disorder.” This statement BEST reflects a _____ perspective on psychological disorders.
A) medical
B) psychological
C) sociocultural
D) biopsychosocial
B

42.Which perspective on abnormal behavior places the greatest emphasis on early childhood experiences and personality factors?
A) the biopsychosocial model
B) the medical model
C) the psychological perspective
D) the sociocultural perspective
C

43.Which piece of evidence does NOT directly support a sociocultural perspective on the etiology of psychological abnormality?
A) General declines in psychological functioning are seen during economic downturns.
B) Schizophrenia is diagnosed more frequently among lower- than among middle- or
high-SES individuals.
C) African Americans are more likely than White Americans to be involuntarily hospitalized for psychological disorders.
D) Traumatic childhood experiences are associated with bipolar disorder.
D

44.The _____ perspective is the most integrative approach to psychological disorders.
A) medical
B) psychological
C) sociocultural
D) biopsychosocial
D

45.Which statement BEST expresses the relationship between the diathesis-stress model of psychological disorders and the biopsychosocial perspective?
A) The diathesis-stress model reflects the biopsychosocial perspective.
B) The diathesis-stress model is an alternative to the biopsychosocial perspective.
C) The diathesis-stress model has replaced the biopsychosocial perspective.
D) The diathesis-stress model opposes the biopsychosocial perspective.
A

46.______ disorders are characterized by extreme apprehension and debilitating fears.
A) Anxiety
B) Depressive
C) Dissociative
D) Personality
A

47.Data presented in the textbook indicates that _____ is the most common anxiety disorder among adults.
A) separation anxiety
B) panic disorder
C) specific phobia
D) generalized anxiety disorder
C

48.Cross-cultural variants of panic disorder do NOT include:
A) ataque de nervios.
B) trung gio.
C) khyal.
D) taijin kyofu.
D

49.Taijin kyofu is to ataque de nervios as _____ disorder is to _____ disorder.
A) social anxiety; generalized anxiety
B) social anxiety; panic
C) generalized anxiety; panic
D) panic; social anxiety
B

50.Anxiety disorders are:
A) twice as common among men as among women.
B) equally common among men and women.
C) twice as common among women as among men.
D) three times as common among men as among women.
C

51.The anxiety disorders identified in the DSM-5 do NOT include:
A) panic disorder.
B) specific phobia.
C) bipolar disorder.
D) generalized anxiety disorder.
C

52.In _____ disorder, an individual experiences sudden, intense fear or discomfort.
A) obsessive-compulsive
B) panic
C) generalized anxiety
D) social anxiety
B

53.When people suffer from _____, they often feel intense fear that something horrible is about to happen. These feelings last several minutes and include heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and dizziness.
A) specific phobia
B) dissociative disorder
C) generalized anxiety disorder
D) panic disorder
D

54.Symptoms that can be incorrectly perceived as those of a heart attack are MOST characteristic of _____ disorder.
A) bipolar
B) obsessive-compulsive
C) generalized anxiety
D) panic
D

55.Several times in the past two months, Petra has experienced a racing heart, intense fear that something horrible is about to happen, and an inability to breathe. Petra most likely is suffering from _____ disorder.
A) panic
B) generalized anxiety
C) social anxiety
D) separation anxiety
A

56.Panic disorder affects about _____ of the population.
A) 0.5%-1%
B) 1%-2%
C) 2%-3%
D) 3%-4%
C

57.The learning mechanism MOST likely implicated in the development of panic disorder is:
A) classical conditioning.
B) observational learning.
C) operant conditioning.
D) latent learning.
A

58.Brett has an intense, irrational fear of needles and other sharp objects. Brett might be diagnosed with:
A) agoraphobia.
B) panic disorder.
C) generalized anxiety disorder.
D) specific phobia.
D

59.Michael is extremely fearful of germs. He sleeps in a special chamber at night, wears gloves, and will only eat food that he can unwrap. His symptoms are most characteristic of:
A) specific phobia.
B) panic disorder.
C) generalized anxiety disorder.
D) obsessive-compulsive disorder.
A

60.Although Zebulon realizes his behavior is unreasonable, he is so distraught by high bridges that he avoids them, causing him to take an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Zebulon appears to suffer from:
A) panic disorder.
B) specific phobia.
C) generalized anxiety disorder.
D) obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B

61.Thirty-five-year-old Lucy needs to have her blood drawn. She is so distraught by this that she must mentally prepare herself for it as well as take a short-acting sedative. Lucy seems to be suffering from:
A) generalized anxiety disorder.
B) panic disorder.
C) specific phobia.
D) obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C

62.An individual with a fear of public speaking, going to parties, or eating out MOST likely suffers from _____ disorder.
A) panic
B) obsessive-compulsive
C) social anxiety
D) posttraumatic stress
C

63.Walter has an intense fear of public speaking. Because he can engage only in one-on-one interactions, he has been passed over for promotions. Walter’s case illustrates _____ disorder.
A) social anxiety
B) obsessive-compulsive
C) panic
D) posttraumatic stress
A

64.Twenty-year-old Brianna lives in a small town. She has always been extremely shy, but lately she has been feeling intensely afraid that others are scrutinizing her. She avoids speaking in class, she no longer goes to parties, and she no longer goes out to eat in restaurants. Brianna seems to be suffering from:
A) specific phobia.
B) social phobia.
C) generalized anxiety disorder.
D) panic disorder.
B

65.Some people in Japan and Korea suffer from taijin kyofu, a variant of _____ anxiety disorder in which people fear _____.
A) generalized; causing distress to others
B) generalized; negative evaluation by others
C) social; causing distress to others
D) social; negative evaluation by others
C

66._____ is characterized by excessive worry and unease concerning multiple aspects of life.
A) Generalized anxiety disorder
B) Social anxiety disorder
C) Panic disorder
D) Specific phobia
A

67.Lenora is always tense and uneasy. She is plagued by insomnia and muscle tension. Lenora is MOST likely suffering from _____ disorder.
A) panic
B) generalized anxiety
C) agoraphobia
D) social anxiety
B

68.Rhonda is constantly worried about many aspects of her life. She is having trouble sleeping and is experiencing muscle tension. Rhonda is showing signs of:
A) generalized anxiety disorder.
B) panic disorder.
C) agoraphobia.
D) specific phobia.
A

69.Diane is concerned about things at work even when she is at home. She is constantly worried about her home life even when she is at work. Diane has a free-floating anxiety that leaves her tense and irritable, impairs her concentration, and results in many sleepless nights. Diane is MOST likely suffering from _____ disorder.
A) panic
B) generalized anxiety
C) bipolar
D) social anxiety
B

70.An intrusive, repetitive thought, urge, or image is called a(n):
A) obsession.
B) delusion.
C) compulsion.
D) hallucination.
A

71.People who suffer from _____ disorder are so preoccupied by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions that they are unable to function in their daily lives.
A) obsessive-compulsive
B) bipolar
C) dissociative identity
D) generalized anxiety
A

72.People who are troubled by repetitive thoughts or actions are suffering from ____ disorder.
A) major depressive
B) obsessive-compulsive
C) dissociative identity
D) generalized anxiety
B

73.Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress the intrusive worry that she may have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of _____ disorder.
A) panic
B) bipolar
C) obsessive-compulsive
D) generalized anxiety
C

74.Sally is focused on cleaning her home, which she does for four hours per day. In particular, the fringe on her rugs must be straight on both sides in all five rooms. This takes considerable time, and she often repeats this 10 to 12 times per day. Her experience is most symptomatic of _____ disorder.
A) phobic
B) bipolar
C) major depressive
D) obsessive-compulsive
D

75.Obsession is to compulsion as _______ is to _______.
A) emotion; cognition
B) cognition; emotion
C) cognition; behavior
D) behavior; cognition
C

76.Each day, the obsessions and compulsions of obsessive-compulsive disorder consume at least _____ of a person’s day.
A) 30 minutes
B) 1 hour
C) 2 hours
D) 3 hours
B

77.At some time in Hector’s life, he became one of the few people who crossed the line from normal worries and quirks to a time-consuming, disruptive impairment in which he must repeatedly do certain things in a certain order to prevent disaster from occurring. Hector’s condition is known as _____ disorder.
A) social anxiety
B) hypomanic
C) generalized anxiety
D) obsessive-compulsive
D

78.Obsessive-compulsive disorder may reflect reduced activity of the neurotransmitter:
A) dopamine.
B) serotonin.
C) norepinephrine.
D) glutamate.
B

79.Abnormal activity in the orbital frontal cortex is implicated in:
A) generalized anxiety disorder.
B) panic disorder.
C) obsessive-compulsive disorder.
D) agoraphobia.
C

80.The brain areas involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder also contribute to:
A) emotion.
B) memory.
C) movement.
D) language.
C

81.Having a first-degree relative with obsessive-compulsive disorder increases one’s risk of developing the disorder by a factor of:
A) 2.
B) 3.
C) 4.
D) 5.
A

82.In obsessive-compulsive disorder, compulsions relieve or offset troubling obsessions. Thus, compulsions are therefore maintained through:
A) negative punishment.
B) negative reinforcement.
C) positive punishment.
D) positive reinforcement.
B

83.The textbook describes a study in which researchers tracked 144 people with obsessive- compulsive disorder for more than 40 years. Recall the research designs used in developmental psychology. Skoog and Skoog’s study exemplifies _____ research.
A) longitudinal
B) correlational
C) cross-sectional
D) experimental
A

84.Sleep problems, lack of energy, and a “down” mood are symptomatic of:
A) schizophrenia.
B) major depressive disorder.
C) generalized anxiety disorder.
D) obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B

85.Feeling worthless, difficulty concentrating, and changes in appetite are symptoms of:
A) schizophrenia.
B) obsessive compulsive disorder.
C) generalized anxiety disorder.
D) major depressive disorder.
D

86.Carrie has had trouble sleeping for the past two weeks. She has no energy and feels “blue.” Carrie may be suffering from:
A) schizophrenia.
B) generalized anxiety disorder.
C) major depressive disorder.
D) obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C

87.Elaine feels that her life is empty. She has lost interest in her career and hobbies, and she wonders if she would be better off dead. She is MOST likely suffering from _____ disorder.
A) major depressive
B) generalized anxiety
C) dissociative identity
D) obsessive-compulsive
A

88.For the past four weeks, Nan has been feeling lethargic and worthless. Her friends are worried because she no longer shows interest in her normal social activities. Nan is MOST likely suffering from _____ disorder.
A) obsessive-compulsive
B) generalized anxiety
C) dissociative identity
D) major depressive
D

89.Major depressive disorder is diagnosed when at least _____ symptoms of depression are evident.
A) 3
B) 4
C) 5
D) 6
C

90.In major depressive disorder, symptoms must be present for at least _____ consecutive weeks.
A) 2
B) 4
C) 6
D) 8
A

91.Heather has been feeling depressed and listless lately. She has had no motivation and has lost interest in activities she once enjoyed. For Heather to be diagnosed with major depression, these symptoms must last for at least:
A) 1 week.
B) 2 weeks.
C) 1 month.
D) 2 months.
B

92.Which figure BEST approximates the proportion of women who experience depression immediately surrounding the birth of a child (peripartum onset)?
A) 1%
B) 5%
C) 10%
D) 15%
B

93.Which figure BEST approximates the proportion of women who experience premenstrual dysphoric disorder?
A) 5%
B) 10%
C) 15%
D) 20%
A

94.Compared to younger persons, the prevalence of major depressive disorder is _____ times _____ in individuals 60 years of age and older.
A) 2; higher
B) 2; lower
C) 3; higher
D) 3; lower
C

95.Adults who feel depressed most of the time for two years may be diagnosed with _____ disorder.
A) disruptive mood dysregulation
B) major depressive
C) manic depressive
D) persistent depressive
D

96.Nick has felt depressed most of the time for the past two years. On this basis, he may be diagnosed with _____ disorder.
A) disruptive mood dysregulation
B) major depressive
C) persistent depressive
D) manic depressive
C

97.At some point in their lives, nearly 1 in _____ American adults will experience an episode of major depression.
A) 4
B) 5
C) 6
D) 8
B

98.The rates of major depressive disorder may be up to 3 times _____ for women than for men beginning in _____.
A) higher; adolescence
B) higher; early adulthood
C) lower; adolescence
D) lower; early adulthood
A

99.According to the World Health Organization, which psychological disorder causes the MOST disability in terms of missed work days?
A) major depressive disorder
B) generalized anxiety disorder
C) schizophrenia
D) bipolar disorder
A

100.Worldwide, approximately _____ of adults have thought seriously about suicide.
A) 1%
B) 5%
C) 10%
D) 15%
C

101.What
proportion of the population has attempted suicide?
A) 0.5%
B) 1%
C) 3%
D) 5%
C

102.Which statement BEST captures historical trends in suicide rates from 2000 to 2010?
A) Suicide rates declined by 20% during this period.
B) Suicide rates declined by 10% during this period.
C) Suicide rates did not change during this period.
D) Suicide rates increased by 20% during this period.
D

103.Suicide rates are highest among:
A) American Indians.
B) Black Americans.
C) White Americans.
D) Hispanic Americans.
C

104.Among individuals who commit suicide, about _____ have at least one psychological disorder.
A) 35%
B) 50%
C) 75%
D) 90%
D

105.Among individuals who commit suicide, the most common psychological disorders are major depressive disorder and:
A) schizophrenia.
B) generalized anxiety disorder.
C) bipolar disorder.
D) substance abuse disorder.
D

106.The heritability of depression is estimated at:
A) 30%-35%.
B) 40%-50%.
C) 55%-65%.
D) 70%-75%.
B

107.The neurotransmitters involved in depression include each of these EXCEPT:
A) acetylcholine.
B) serotonin.
C) norepinephrine.
D) dopamine.
A

108.Evidence suggests that persons with depressive disorders may have _____ levels of the hormone _____.
A) high; cortisol
B) high; melatonin
C) low; cortisol
D) low; melatonin
A

109.With respect to depression, Beck is to Seligman as _____ is to _____.
A) learned helplessness; negative thinking
B) negative thinking; learned helplessness
C) negative thinking; dopamine hypothesis
D) dopamine hypothesis; learned helplessness
B

110.These days, Adam is sleeping very little. He seems full of energy and enthusiasm. His extreme optimism has led him to take foolish risks. He lost a lot of money, for instance, betting on a horse that he was sure would win. Adam may be in a _____ state.
A) dissociative
B) manic
C) schizophrenic
D) fugue
B

111.Individuals suffering from bipolar disorder cycle between periods of depression and periods of:
A) mania.
B) dysthymia.
C) psychosis.
D) anxiety.
A

112.Bipolar I disorder is to bipolar II disorder as _____ is to _____.
A) hypomania; mania
B) major depression; mania
C) hypomania; major depression
D) mania; hypomania
D

113.The police brought Gabriella to the emergency room after she was seen running down the street in her underwear yelling that she “has the power!” Gabriella was also spending large amounts of money and was agitated and reckless during the past 5 days. In the emergency room, Gabriella would not be quiet long enough for the nurse to ask her questions. Gabriella is MOST likely suffering from _____ disorder.
A) dissociative
B) antisocial personality
C) major depressive
D) bipolar
D

114._____ is characterized by moods that alternate between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the euphoric, hyperactive state of mania.
A) Schizophrenia
B) Major depressive disorder
C) Bipolar disorder
D) Generalized anxiety disorder
C

115.Butch alternates between periods of dark despair and times of elation, great energy, recklessness, and creativity. Butch seems to suffer from ______ disorder.
A) dissociative
B) bipolar
C) personality
D) depressive
B

116.Boris
are followed by periods of great creativity. It is likely that Boris is suffering from _____ disorder.
A) panic
is a prolific painter. He is prone to periods of hopelessness and depression, which
B) bipolar
C) dissociative identity
D) obsessive-compulsive
B

117.Which statement BEST expresses the relationship between mania and depression?
A) Mania is the clinical term for a depressive episode.
B) Mania and depression are distinct disorders.
C) Mania and depression are opposite mood states.
D) Mania is a more intense mood state than is depression.
C

118.Bipolar disorder is _____ common among men as it is among women.
A) much less
B) less
C) just as
D) more
C

119.A family history of bipolar disorder increases one’s risk for developing the disorder by a factor of:
A) 2.
B) 5.
C) 7.
D) 10.
D

120.Darla has an identical twin who was recently diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Research suggests that the chances that Darla will also suffer from bipolar disorder at some point in her life may be as high as _____.
A) 50%
B) 60%
C) 70%
D) 90%
C

121.Which mood disorders term is correctly paired with its description?
A) major depression – alternating periods of depression and mania
B) compulsion – a severe state impairing concentration, decision making, and sociability
C) bipolar disorder – a prolonged state of intense elation
D) hypomania – a less intense, less disruptive state of elation than mania
D

122.Which mood disorder is NOT correctly matched with an example?
A) bipolar disorder – Ximena cycles between periods of intense happiness and deep depression.
B) mania – Neal feels elated and invincible; he seems to have boundless energy.
C) major depression – Bonnie cannot seem to concentrate; she has lost interest in spending time with her friends and family.
D) hypomania – For the past couple of years, Robbie has felt “down” most of the time.
D

123.People with schizophrenia demonstrate a severe and chronic loss of contact with reality called:
A) psychosis.
B) neurosis.
C) dysthymia.
D) mania.
A

124.A(n) _____ is a false belief that often accompanies schizophrenia.
A) hallucination
B) obsession
C) compulsion
D) delusion
D

125.Perception is to _____ as cognition is to _____.
A) hallucination; delusion
B) delusion; hallucination
C) obsession; compulsion
D) compulsion; obsession
A

126.Hallucination is to delusion as _____ is to _____.
A) perception; action
B) action; cognition
C) cognition; perception
D) perception; cognition
D

127.Mr. James incorrectly believes that FBI agents are trying to steal his savings. Mr. James is suffering from a(n):
A) obsession.
B) delusion.
C) compulsion.
D) hallucination.
B

128.Michael complains that threatening voices are constantly telling him he is so evil he should kill himself. Michael is experiencing a(n):
A) obsession.
B) delusion.
C) compulsion.
D) hallucination.
D

129.People with schizophrenia often have disturbed perceptions called _____, which are sensory experiences without sensory stimulation from the environment.
A) compulsions
B) delusions
C) hallucinations
D) obsessions
C

130.One positive symptom of schizophrenia is:
A) hallucinations.
B) reduced motivation.
C) decreased speech.
D) lack of emotional expression.
A

131.Disorganized speech is a _____ symptom of schizophrenia. Hearing voices is a _____ symptom.
A) negative; negative
B) negative; positive
C) positive; negative
D) positive; positive
D

132.Sheila, who has schizophrenia, displays virtually no emotion, no matter how dramatic the event; this is a _____ symptom of schizophrenia.
A) primary
B) secondary
C) negative
D) positive
C

133.Frank was seen laughing inappropriately in the library as if he were responding to internal stimuli. On the bus home, he was crying uncontrollably and suddenly became angered when a fellow passenger offered him a tissue. Frank’s excess of inappropriate behaviors exemplify the _____ typical of schizophrenia.
A) psychosis
B) positive symptoms
C) delusional thinking
D) negative symptoms
B

134.Victor’s mother is frustrated because she cannot get Victor involved in any activities. Most days he sits in a chair with no expression on his face. Victor’s absence of appropriate behavior exemplifies the _____ typical of schizophrenia.
A) psychosis
B) positive symptoms
C) delusional thinking
D) negative symptoms
D

135.Disorganized speech is to decreased speech as _____ is to _____.
A) positive symptom; negative symptom
B) negative symptom; positive symptom
C) delusion; hallucination
D) hallucination; delusion
A

136.A person’s lifetime risk of having schizophrenia is:
A) about 0.1%.
B) less than 1%.
C) about 1.5%.
D) just over 2%.
B

137.Schizophrenia:
A) is more likely to affect men than women.
B) is more likely to affect women than men.
C) affects men earlier in life than it does women.
D) affects women earlier in life than it does men.
C

138.Which choice BEST expresses historical trends in psychologists’ views of schizophrenia’s etiology?
A) Psychologists once attributed schizophrenia largely to environmental factors. They now believe that genetic factors play a critical role in the disorder’s etiology.
B) Psychologists once attributed schizophrenia largely to genetic factors. They now believe that environmental factors play a critical role in the disorder’s etiology.
C) Psychologists have always attributed schizophrenia mainly to environmental factors.
D) Psychologists have always attributed schizophrenia mainly to genetic factors.
A

139.Each year, approximately _____ new articles on schizophrenia appear in the psychological literature.
A) 100
B) 500
C) 1,000
D) 5,000
D

140.The case of the Genain quadruplets _____ the importance of _____ factors in schizophrenia’s etiology.
A) affirms; environmental
B) affirms; genetic
C) disconfirms; environmental
D) disconfirms; genetic
D

141.Overall, researchers agree that schizophrenia is about _____ heritable.
A) 40%
B) 50%
C) 70%
D) 80%
D

142.Grace has schizophrenia. Which figure offers the BEST rough estimate of the likelihood that her identical twin Joy will also have schizophrenia?
A) 50%
B) 75%
C) 90%
D) 100%
A

143.If one has a nontwin sibling with schizophrenia, one’s risk of developing the disorder is about:
A) 5%.
B) 10%.
C) 25%.
D) 50%.
B

144.Mrs. Pollard is expecting her first child. She and her husband both have schizophrenia. Their child’s risk of developing schizophrenia is about:
A) 10%.
B) 20%.
C) 30%.
D) 40%.
C

126.Hallucination is to delusion as _____ is to _____.
A) perception; action
B) action; cognition
C) cognition; perception
D) perception; cognition
Ans: D

127.Mr. James incorrectly believes that FBI agents are trying to steal his savings. Mr. James is suffering from a(n):
A) obsession.
B) delusion.
C) compulsion.
D) hallucination.
Ans: B

128.Michael complains that threatening voices are constantly telling him he is so evil he should kill himself. Michael is experiencing a(n):
A) obsession.
B) delusion.
C) compulsion.
D) hallucination.
Ans: D

145.An excess of the neurotransmitter _____ has long been associated with schizophrenia.
A) glutamate
B) serotonin
C) GABA
D) dopamine
D

146.With respect to schizophrenia, diathesis is to stress as _____ is to _____.
A) nature; nurture
B) positive symptoms; negative symptoms
C) nurture; nature
D) negative symptoms; positive symptoms
A

147.The brain abnormalities seen in schizophrenia are thought to be related to psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. In other words, brain abnormalities may underlie some of the _____ symptoms of the disorder.
A) negative
B) positive
C) primary
D) secondary
B

151.People with _____ disorders display rigid, unusual behavior patterns that impair functioning.
A) anxiety
B) dissociative
C) personality
D) depressive
C

152.The two personality disorders that have received the MOST research attention are _____ personality disorder and _____ personality disorder.
A) avoidant; borderline
B) antisocial; borderline
C) antisocial; dependent
D) avoidant; dependent
B

153.Kristi has been detached from her friends and classmates. She displays such emotionless
disengagement that she might be diagnosed with _____ personality disorder.
A) antisocial
B) dependent
C) schizoid
D) paranoid
C

154.Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by a(n):
A) exaggerated sense of self-importance.
B) tendency to accept humiliating or demeaning treatment.
C) disregard for the rule of society or the rights of others.
D) inability to develop a stable sense of identity.
A

155.Gloria is a real “diva”: She expects special treatment from others but completely disregards others’ feelings. Gloria may have _____ personality disorder.
A) borderline
B) antisocial
C) narcissistic
D) paranoid
C

156.Jackie is extremely afraid of rejection. As a result, she has always been withdrawn. Her inflexible and enduring behavior patterns have impaired her social functioning, and she
may have _____ personality disorder.
A) avoidant
B) histrionic
C) schizoid
D) antisocial
A

157.Stacy has to be the life of the party. She wears revealing clothing, even around her married friends’ husbands. This behavior has upset a number of her friends, especially when she asked a friend’s boyfriend out. On any given weekend, Stacy can be seen at a club dancing on a table. Stacy may be considered to have _____ personality disorder.
A) histrionic
B) antisocial
C) narcissistic
D) schizoid
A

158.Lanie is very dramatic and impulsive. She displays shallow, attention-getting emotions and will do whatever she can to get people to praise her. Lanie exhibits characteristics typical of ______ personality disorder.
A) histrionic
B) antisocial
C) dependent
D) paranoid
A

159.A true “drama queen” may well have ______ personality disorder.
A) narcissistic
B) schizoid
C) avoidant
D) histrionic
D

160.Which personality disorder is correctly matched with its description?
A) narcissistic personality disorder – self-critical and unstable
B) borderline personality disorder – detached and unemotional
C) antisocial personality disorder – unethical, impulsive, aggressive
D) schizoid personality disorder – self-absorbed and unempathetic
C

129.People with schizophrenia often have disturbed perceptions called _____, which are sensory experiences without sensory stimulation from the environment.
A) compulsions
B) delusions
C) hallucinations
D) obsessions
Ans: C

148.Schizophrenia is associated with a(n):
A) decrease in the size of the brainstem.
B) thickening of the cerebral cortex.
C) decrease in total brain volume.
D) increase in the size of the corpus callosum.
C

161.A manipulative, callous individual with no apparent conscience might be diagnosed with _____ personality disorder.
A) schizotypal
B) narcissistic
C) psychopathic
D) antisocial
D

162.Chase stole money from the local grocery store on the corner to buy beer. He later
assaulted a 72-year-old woman and stole her purse. In the alley, he dumped the purse, went to Starbucks for a cup of coffee, and proceeded to take the train. On the train, a woman accidentally stepped on his shoes, and he threw the hot coffee on her and laughed. Chase would be considered to have a(n) _______ personality disorder.
A) schizotypal
B) sociopathic
C) antisocial
D) borderline
C

163.Kyle is extremely manipulative. He can look anyone in the eye and lie convincingly. His deceit often endangers the safety and well-being of those around him, but he is indifferent to their suffering as a result of his actions. His behavior BEST illustrates:
A) schizophrenia.
B) antisocial personality disorder.
C) obsessive-compulsive disorder.
D) bipolar disorder.
B

164.A person with antisocial personality disorders show reduced tissue volume in the brain’s:
A) limbic system.
B) hypothalamus.
C) corpus callosum.
D) prefrontal cortex.
D

165.A person with _____ disorder is aggressive, ruthless, and shows no sign of the conscience that would inhibit wrongdoing.
A) generalized anxiety
B) obsessive-compulsive
C) antisocial personality
D) dissociative identity
C

166.Approximately _____ of Americans are diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Most of them are _____.
A) 0.5%; men
B) 0.5%; women
C) 1%; men
D) 1%; women
C

167.Fabiana is dramatic and emotionally volatile. She rapidly forms intense relationships that then blow up or fall apart quickly. Although she tends to distrust others, she also needs their attention. Fabiana might be diagnosed with _______ personality disorder.
A) antisocial
B) borderline
C) narcissistic
D) histrionic
B

168.Approximately _____ of those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder are women.
A) 50%
B) 65%
C) 75%
D) 90%
C

169.Disturbances involving problems with memory, consciousness, identity, and motor control are characteristic of _____ disorders.
A) dissociative
B) mood
C) anxiety
D) trauma-related
A

170.A disturbance in unified psychological functioning is called a:
A) dysthymia.
B) dissociation.
C) neurosis.
D) psychosis.
B

171.Paulette cannot recall long stretches of her difficult childhood; Paulette’s case is an example of dissociative:
A) amnesia.
B) identity disorder.
C) trauma.
D) fugue.
A

172.Fugue states are characteristic of _____ disorders.
A) depressive
B) personality
C) dissociative
D) anxiety
C

149.Drugs that block dopamine reduce the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations. These drugs therefore lessen the _____ symptoms of the disorder.
A) primary
B) secondary
C) negative
D) positive
D

173.Omar was found wandering outside a Boise, Idaho discount store. His last memories are of his previous life in Greensboro, North Carolina; he had no memory of his journey to Idaho. Omar’s condition is known as dissociative:
A) fugue.
B) flight.
C) trauma.
D) identity disorder.
A

174.Dissociative _____ is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct personalities.
A) identity disorder.
B) fugue
C) trauma disorder
D) amnesia
A

150._____ disorders are defined by an enduring, inflexible pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates from the expectations of an individual’s culture.
A) Personality
B) Dissociative
C) Trauma-related
D) Anxiety
A

175.Classic films such as Sybil and The Three Faces of Eve as well as the recent television series United States of Tara focused on a disorder called _____ in which an individual presents several distinct personalities.
A) schizophrenia
B) dissociative identity disorder
C) histrionic personality disorder
D) dissociative fugue
B

176.The term “multiple personality disorder” is sometimes used to describe:
A) schizophrenia.
B) dissociative fugue.
C) dissociative amnesia.
D) dissociative identity disorder.
D

177.The most complicated and persistent of the dissociative disorders is dissociative:
A) fugue.
B) psychosis disorder.
C) identity disorder.
D) amnesia.
C

181.Dr. Fox specializes in abnormal psychology; her background is probably in experimental psychology.
A) True
B) False
B

178.Which term is correctly matched with its description?
A) dissociative amnesia – An individual displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities.
B) dissociative fugue – An individual experiences a significant, selective memory loss.
C) dissociative identity disorder – An individual is found wandering and confused in a distant city.
D) dissociation – An individual experiences a disturbance in the integration of the psychological functions involved in memory, consciousness, perception, or identity.
D

182.Since substance abuse is against one’s best interests, it is a maladaptive behavior.
A) True
B) False
A

183.The three Ds of psychological abnormality are dysfunction, distress, and deviance.
A) True
B) False
A

179.Dr. Herbert suggests that dissociative symptoms are created as defenses against the anxiety created by unacceptable unconscious urges. Dr. Herbert reflects psychology’s _____ perspective.
A) behavioral
B) psychodynamic
C) cognitive
D) humanistic
B

184.Homosexuality was considered a psychological disorder until the 1970s.
A) True
B) False
A

185.Normal and abnormal behaviors are best seen as discrete categories.
A) True
B) False
B

186.Koro is an anxiety disorder seen in Southeast Asia.
A) True
B) False
A

180.The text suggests that dissociative disorders generally occur as a result of:
A) sudden brain injury.
B) chronic substance abuse.
C) extreme stress or trauma.
D) neurotransmitter deficits.
C

130.One positive symptom of schizophrenia is:
A) hallucinations.
B) reduced motivation.
C) decreased speech.
D) lack of emotional expression.
Ans: A

187.Schizophrenia is found only in industrialized Western cultures.
A) True
B) False
B

191.Many people fail to seek mental health services because of the stigma associated with psychological abnormality.
A) True
B) False
Ans: A
A

192.The DSM-5 lists just over 150 psychological disorders.
A) True
B) False
Ans: A
A

193.The DSM-5 takes an atheoretical approach to the diagnosis of psychological disorders.
A) True
B) False
Ans: A
A

126.Hallucination is to delusion as _____ is to _____.
A) perception; action
B) action; cognition
C) cognition; perception
D) perception; cognition
Ans: D

188.Most states no longer offer the insanity defense.
A) True
B) False
B

194.At some point in their lives, half of all Americans will exhibit symptoms that meet the criteria for a psychological disorder.
A) True
B) False
Ans: A
A

189.The insanity defense is successful in most of the cases in which it is used.
A) True
B) False
B

198.The diathesis-stress model applies the medical model to schizophrenia.
A) True
B) False
B

201.The symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder are similar to those of a heart attack.
A) True
B) False
B

202.Emma’s heart is racing, and she is sweating and nauseous. She feels as if she might die. Emma is experiencing a panic attack.
A) True
B) False
A

203.Research suggests that people diagnosed with panic disorder may have a larger-than- normal amygdala.
A) True
B) False
B

204.The heritability of panic disorder is about 70%.
A) True
B) False
B

199.Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder.
A) True
B) False
B

195.Prevalence refers to the occurrence of two or more psychological disorders at the same time.
A) True
B) False
Ans: B
B

196.Katherine has been diagnosed with both Bipolar I disorder and substance use disorder. Thus, Katherine’s case exemplifies etiology.
A) True
B) False
Ans: B
B

205.Learning theorists suggest that phobias are acquired through classical conditioning.
A) True
B) False
A

206.Unless a friend accompanies her, Anne is overwhelmed when she goes shopping or uses the city bus. Anne is agoraphobic.
A) True
B) False
A

207.In the United States, social anxiety disorder is based on the fear of offending or disturbing others.
A) True
B) False
B

211.Thought is to action as compulsion is to obsession.
A) True
B) False
B

212.To qualify as symptomatic of a disorder, a person’s obsessions or compulsions must consume at least 1 hour each day.
A) True
B) False
A

213.Obsessive-compulsive disorder is related to lowered levels of dopamine in the brain.
A) True
B) False
B

214.Having a parent or sibling with obsessive-compulsive disorder makes it twice as likely that one will develop the disorder oneself.
A) True
B) False
A

215.Compulsions are positively reinforced when they offer relief from obsessive thoughts.
A) True
B) False
A

208.Muscle tension and restlessness often accompany generalized anxiety disorder.
A) True
B) False
A

216.Michael is always tired. He has trouble concentrating and feels worthless. Michael may be suffering from major depression.
A) True
B) False
A

217.Nearly one in four women experience depression surrounding the birth of a child.
A) True
B) False
B

218.Women and men are equally likely to experience major depression.
A) True
B) False
B

209.Environmental factors appear unrelated to the development of generalized anxiety disorder.
A) True
B) False
B

200.Agoraphobia is one type of anxiety disorder.
A) True
B) False
A

197.According to the biopsychosocial model, psychological disorders stem from a complex interaction of causes.
A) True
B) False
A

190.A negative attitude about a group of people based on characteristics they share is called a schema.
A) True
B) False
B

127.Mr. James incorrectly believes that FBI agents are trying to steal his savings. Mr. James is suffering from a(n):
A) obsession.
B) delusion.
C) compulsion.
D) hallucination.
Ans: B

210.When Renata washes the dishes, she must wash and rinse each dish, each glass, and each piece of silverware exactly nine times. Renata’s behavior is an example of a compulsion.
A) True
B) False
A

219.Depression is the leading cause of disability among adults.
A) True
B) False
A

220.The symptoms of depression are the same from one culture to another.
A) True
B) False
B

221.Suicide rates have remained more or less constant over the past decade or so.
A) True
B) False
B

222.About 90% of the people who commit suicide have at least one psychological disorder.
A) True
B) False
A

223.The heritability of major depressive disorder is about 75%.
A) True
B) False
B

231.A family history of bipolar disorder is one of the strongest risk factors for bipolar disorder.
A) True
B) False
A

232.The most common hallucinations in schizophrenia are auditory.
A) True
B) False
A

233.Hallucinations and delusions are negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
A) True
B) False
B

234.The lifetime risk of schizophrenia is less than 1 in 100.
A) True
B) False
A

235.Schizophrenia is more common among women than among men.
A) True
B) False
B

236.Schizophrenia is one of the most heavily studied psychological disorders.
A) True
B) False
A

237.Genetic factors account for about half the risk of developing schizophrenia.
A) True
B) False
B

238.Stephanie’s identical twin has schizophrenia, which means that Stephanie has an 80% chance of having schizophrenia herself.
A) True
B) False
B

239.Diathesis is to stress as genes are to environment.
A) True
B) False
A

224.Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitters involved in major depressive disorder.
A) True
B) False
A

241.According to the dopamine hypothesis, schizophrenia reflects a deficit of dopamine in the brain.
A) True
B) False
B

242.Uninvolved parenting elevates the risk of schizophrenia.
A) True
B) False
B

243.The two most-studied personality disorders are paranoid personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder.
A) True
B) False
B

244.A true “control freak” may have obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
A) True
B) False
A

225.People with depressive disorders may have high levels of the stress hormone cortisol.
A) True
B) False
A

245.Antisocial personality disorder is equally common among men and women.
A) True
B) False
B

246.Both nature and nurture appear to contribute to antisocial personality disorder.
A) True
B) False
A

240.Schizophrenia is associated with a reduction in total brain volume.
A) True
B) False
A

247.Abnormalities in the brain’s limbic system are often seen in antisocial personality disorder.
A) True
B) False
B

248.Childhood trauma seems to play some role in borderline personality disorder.
A) True
B) False
A

251.A disruption in unified psychological experience is called psychosis.
A) True
B) False
B

252.An individual found wandering and confused is probably suffering from dissociative identity disorder.
A) True
B) False
B

253.In dissociative identity disorder, an individual exhibits two or more distinct personalities.
A) True
B) False
A

254.Dissociative identity disorder is diagnosed less frequently now than it was in the past.
A) True
B) False
B

255.Discuss the criteria by which behavior is defined as abnormal. Using examples, illustrate how psychological abnormality varies across time and across cultures.
Typicality is the most basic criterion by which behavior is defined as abnormal. Abnormal behavior is generally atypical; that is, it is infrequent or unusual. By itself, however, this criterion is insufficient. Intellectual genius, for example, is atypical, but it is not a psychological disorder. Several addition criteria are therefore used to determine whether behavior is disordered. These criteria are sometimes called the three Ds:
Criterion Dysfunction Distress Deviance Definition The degree to which a behavior interferes with daily life and relationships
The degree to which behavior causes an individual to feel upset or uncomfortable
The degree to which a behavior falls outside society’s rules or standards
The behaviors that are considered abnormal have varied across time. Homosexuality, for example, was considered a psychological disorder until the 1970s. Although some disorders, such as schizophrenia, are found in all cultures, others are culturally specific. One example is koro. Found mainly in Southeast Asia, koro is an anxiety disorder centering on the fear that the sexual organs will disappear into the body.

256.In several sentences, briefly describe the DSM-5 as well as the advantages and potential disadvantages of its atheoretical approach.
The DSM-5 is an evidence-based classification system of mental disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association. The first version was published in 1952. The current version lists 157 psychological disorders organized into 20 chapters. Since 1980, the DSM has taken an atheoretical approach, presenting a checklist of observable signs and symptoms for each disorder. This atheoretical approach has made it easier for mental health professionals to agree on diagnoses. However, the approach has limited clinicians’ understanding of their patients, and has led to some patients being overdiagnosed.

257.Describe the medical, psychological, sociocultural, and biopsychosocial perspectives on the etiology of psychological disorders. For each perspective, provide an example of its contribution to explaining the roots of one of the psychological disorders described in the textbook.
Perspective
Medical
Description Example
— explains — Panic disorder psychologicalmay reflect a disorders smaller-than-normal from a amygdala. biological
standpoint — Schizophrenia may reflect an
— focuses on excess of dopamine genes, in the brain. neurotransmit
ters, and the
brain
— emphasizes– Classical learning conditioning may mechanisms, explain the cognitive acquisition of
Psychological
Sociocultural
factors, and personality
— cultural factors such as poverty, violence, and community support systems can shape psychological abnormality.
phobias.
— Compulsions may be maintained by negative reinforcement
— Experiences with trauma, war and terrorism are linked to dissociative identity disorder in many cultures.
Biopsychosocial– argues that psychologicalstress model of
disorders stem from a complex interaction of biological, psychological , and sociocultural factors
schizophrenia is a good example.

258.Describe panic disorder and specific phobia. Illustrate how biological and psychological factors contribute to the development of these disorders.
Specific phobia. Specific phobia disorder involves an intense, irrational fear of a specific object or situation. Even though the objective danger posed by the object is small or nonexistent, an individual with specific phobia disorder may experience a full-blown panic attack on exposure to the item (such as a snake, spider, or heights). Panic disorder. Panic disorder involves panic attacks that last from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks do not have an obvious trigger. During an attack, anxiety suddenly rises to a peak and the individual feels a sense of impending doom. The attacks also involve physiological symptoms associated with autonomic nervous system arousal—sweating, shortness of breath, a pounding heart, and so forth. Biological factors. People with panic disorder may have a smaller-than-normal amygdala, which would lead to dysfunction in the fight-or- flight response. Panic disorder is about 40% heritable. With respect to specific phobia, people are biologically prepared to fear objects that represented true threats in the evolutionary past, such as spiders. Psychological factors. Classical conditioning is thought to play a role in the development of both panic disorder and specific phobia. Phobias may be maintained through negative reinforcement because they entail avoiding a feared or anxiety-provoking object or situation. Finally, cognition may also play a role in panic disorder: individuals may misinterpret physiological symptoms as indicative of a serious disorder.

259.Distinguish between obsessions and compulsions and provide an example of each. Review the evidence supporting a biological contribution to obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Obsessions are repeated, intrusive thoughts, urges, or images. An example is constant, all-consuming thoughts of death. Compulsions are rituals or behaviors that are repeated over and over to reduce anxiety. An example is constantly washing one’s hands. Obsessive-compulsive disorder has a genetic foundation. An individual’s risk of developing the disorder doubles if a first-degree relative also has the disorder. Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder may show reduced serotonin activity in the brain, as well as irregularities in brain areas involved in planning and regulating movement, such as the basal ganglia, cingulate gyri, and orbital frontal cortex.

260.Review the biological and psychological contributors to depression.
The biological roots of depression include genetic factors, neurotransmitter and brain abnormalities, and hormonal abnormalities. Depression is about 40% to 50% heritable. People with a first-degree relative with depression are twice as likely as others to develop the disorder. Serotonin deficiency is associated with depression; depression is also linked to norepinephrine and dopamine. Irregularities in the amygdala, the prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus have been found among people with depression. Research has found significant thinning of the right prefrontal cortex among people with depression. People with depressive disorders, finally, may have abnormally high levels of the stress hormone cortisol; this difference may be especially pronounced among women with depression. The psychological roots of depression included learned helplessness and negative thinking. According to Martin Seligman, people with depression may have become conditioned to believe they are unable to change things for the better. With respect to negative thinking, Aaron Beck suggested that depression reflects the “cognitive triad”: negative views of one’s experiences, oneself, and the future.

261.Distinguish between delusions and hallucinations and provide an example of each. Distinguish between the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and provide an example of each.
Delusions are unusual, false beliefs that an individual maintains even in the face of contradictory evidence. One example of a delusion is that an individual is being pursue or spied on by others. Hallucinations are perceptual experiences that an individual believes are real but that are not evident to others. An example of a hallucination is hearing voices “inside one’s head” telling one to take some action. The positive symptoms of schizophrenia are excesses or distortions of normal behaviors, such as hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized speech (word salad). The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are deficits or absences of normal behaviors. Examples of negative symptoms include reduced motivation, reduced movement, and lack of affect.

262.Review the evidence supporting a substantial biological contribution to schizophrenia.
Various pieces of evidence suggest a biological contribution to schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is more common in some families than in others. The heritability of schizophrenia is about .80. The closer the genetic link between an individual with schizophrenia and another individual, the greater the chance that the other individual will also have schizophrenia. The chance of both identical twins having schizophrenia is about 40% to 65%. If both parents have schizophrenia, the risk of their children being diagnosed with schizophrenia is about 27%. People with schizophrenia show several brain and neurotransmitter abnormalities. Not only may total brain volume be reduced, but the cortex may also be thinner, and the ventricles correspondingly enlarged. According to the dopamine hypothesis, people with schizophrenia may have excess activity in the dopamine pathway. Thus, dopamine antagonists can be successful in managing schizophrenia.

263.Describe what is meant by a personality disorder. Review the nature and potential causes of antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder.
Personality disorders reflect enduring patterns of inner experience and behavior that deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture. Personality disorders may include impairments in cognition, emotional functioning, interpersonal responses, and impulse control. They generally begin in adolescence or early adulthood and tend to be stable over time. The two most-studied personality disorders are antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Antisocial personality disorder. Individuals with antisocial personality disorder show no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society. They appear charming, intelligent, and likable, but they are actually deceptive and manipulative. They feel no remorse when they hurt someone. In addition to these traits, individuals with antisocial personality disorder are impulsive and tend to seek out stimulation. Antisocial personality disorder is heritable to some extent and seems to be related to deficits in the prefrontal cortex. Borderline personality disorder. Individuals with borderline personality disorder have trouble developing a sense of who they are. They base their identity on their relationships with others. They tend to form intense, sudden, one-sided relationships and demand attention from others. They are emotionally volatile and sometimes impulsive and self-destructive. They tend to be distrustful and have difficulty controlling their anger. While there is a genetic component to borderline personality disorder, childhood trauma does seem to be related.

264.Describe the two main dissociative disorders. Offer one piece of evidence for and one piece of evidence against the validity of the dissociative identity disorder diagnosis.
Dissociative disorders include: Dissociative identity disorder. In dissociative identity disorder, an individual displays the characteristics of two or more distinct personalities. Dissociative identity disorder is the most complicated and persistent of the dissociative disorders. Dissociative amnesia. Dissociative amnesia involves a major memory loss for a significant part of one’s identity. An individual with dissociative amnesia may sometimes be found wandering in a confused and disoriented state. This is called dissociative fugue. The validity of the dissociative identity disorder diagnosis is undermined by the increase in the diagnosis’ frequency. However, child abuse and neglect, war, and terrorism are linked to the disorder in many cultures across the world, suggesting that the diagnosis has some validity.

226.Seligman is to Beck as learned helplessness is to cognitive triad.
A) True
B) False
Ans: A
A

230.About 2% or 3% of the American population will receive a diagnosis of bipolar disorder at some point.
A) True
B) False
B

250.Dissociative disorders are especially difficult to treat.
A) True
B) False
A

227.High self-esteem and risky behavior are two symptoms of mania.
A) True
B) False
A

228.Bipolar I disorder is defined by episodes of hypomania.
A) True
B) False
B

229.Hypomania is less severe than mania.
A) True
B) False
A

249.Fewer than 10% of those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder are men.
A) True
B) False
B

Psychiatrist and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is______. Ongoing patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions that are deviant, distressful, or disfunction. Ongoing patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions that are deviant, distressful, or disfunction are best characterized as …

psychological disorder behavior that is atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable medical models holds tht psychologicial disorders are illnesses that can be diagnosed, treated, and curedm using traditional methods of medicine and psychiatry WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON …

major depression The “common cold” of psychological disorders Neurotic Former term for disorders that, while distressing, still allow a person to think normally and function socially WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

A serious criticism of the ____ model is that the patient becomes a passive recipient of treatment. Medical A person who feels euphoric and hyperactive may be experiencing A manic episode WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

A syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in a person’s thoughts, feelings, or behaviors is most clearly an indication of a) free-floating anxiety. b) dissociation. c) learned helplessness. d )a psychological disorder. d )a psychological disorder. Inattention, hyperactivity, and …

The acronym “DSM-IV-TR” stands for: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision Mood disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure. Major depressive disorder (mood …

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