Chapter 12 & 13

prejudice against foreign-born people; wave of this swept the nation after the war

a policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs

an economic and political system based on a single party government ruled by a dictatorship; no private property, this threatened American life

people who opposed any form of government; these people were hunted down during the Palmer Raids

Sacco & Vanzetti
two famous victims of nativism, they were immigrants and anarchists who were arrested in 1920 and found guilty of robbing and killing a factor paymaster, executed in 1927 which led to global protests

Quota System
the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 set up this system; established the max number of people who could enter the U.S. from each country which cut European immigration and prohibited Japanese into the U.S.

John Lewis
was the leader of the United Mine Workers of America who called for a strike on Nov 1st 1919, President Wilson appointed a judge to end the dispute, Lewis later became a national hero

Klan Rises
KKK was devoted to 100% Americanism, and wanted to drive anyone who wasn’t themselves out of the U.S and they used violence to achieve these goals

he believed he had suffered because he was a radical and he was Italian.
Why did Vanzetti believe he was found guilty?

moral breakdown- breakdown of true traditions, if you weren’t northern european or a nortic group
What “evils” did Evans claim were infecting modern American society?

Hunted down suspected Communists, socialists, and anarchists. Trampled people’s civil rights, invading private, homes and offices and jailing suspects without allowing, legal counsel.
What were the Palmer raids?

To put the maximum number of people who could enter the United States from each foreign country
How did the quota system limit immigration? Which groups did it hurt the most?

they were found guilty before they went to trial, they were immigrants, so the court made their mind up
According to Vanzetti, what injustices did the judicial system harbor?

It wasn’t consistent with American ideals because the KKK is an organization, which gives hopes and resentments of the old-stock Americans
To what extent do you think the Klan’s philosophy was consistent with other American ideas and principles? Explain

-Racial and religious tension
-Wanted to keep America, Americans
-Wanted to uphold old ways
What leads to a revival of the KKK in the 1920’s and what were the objectives of the Klan?

Warren Harding
Ohio senator elected president in 1921, he held the Washington Naval Conference where powerful nations agreed to disarm, he favored a limited role in government, business affairs, and social reform

Charles Evans Hughes
secretary of state for Harding who later became chief justice

Fordney-McCumber Tariff
raised taxes on U.S. imports to 60%, which protected U.S. businesses and made it impossible for GB and France to pay $10 billion back to America

Ohio Gang
Harding’s poker-playing friends who were in the cabinet; they became crooks and used their office to gain wealth

Teapot Dome Scandal
secret leasing of oil-rich public land to private companies in return for money and land

Albert Fall
a close friend of various oil executives who created the teapot dome scandal, and was convicted of a felony

The Ohio gang- president poker-playing cronies
Teapot Dome Scandal- Secretary of the Interior Albert Falls secret leasing of oil-rich public land to private companies in return for money and land.
Identify and describe the scandals of the Harding Administration

Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes urged that no more warships be built for ten years. Suggested five major naval powers (United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy) – scrap many of their large warships.
Describe the Washington Naval Confrence

Calvin Coolidge
president after Harding died; wanted to keep taxes down and business profits up and wanted to keep government interference in business to a minimum

Urban Sprawl
the unplanned and uncontrolled spreading of cities, caused by the automobile

Installment Plan
enabled people to buy goods over extended periods of time; banks provided at low interest rates “buy now pay later”

They were mostly bough on credit and were commonly purchased the radio.
By the end of the 1920s, how were most household items purchased? What was the most commonly purchased family item?

The advertising led to consumerism. New technology was being created, so the good advertisement was needed.
Describe the role of advertising in the 1920s

Urbanization is a larger population. Allowed economy to rise up. A lot of job opportunities were available, but also took time away from their families due to types of jobs that were open.
Describe the process of urbanization in the 1920s and how it affected the country

manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol was not allowed

hidden saloons or nightclubs where people went to illegally drink liquor

smugglers who got alcohol in from Canada, Cuba, and West Indies

Scopes Trial
a fight over evolution and the role of science and religion in public schools; John Scopes was a biology teacher arrested for teaching evolution and was eventually found guilty; Calrence Darrow was Scopes lawyer and Bryan wanted to eliminate fundamentalism

protestant movement grounded in a literal interpretation of the Bible; fundamentalists were skeptical of scientific discoveries, they thought all knowledge came from the Bible

Calrence Darrow
a famous trial lawyer who defended Scopes

accused of teaching evolution in schools (illegal to teach in Tennessee), threatened traditional ideals
How did the Scopes trial illustrate the clash between science and religion in the 1920s?

people wanted alcohol and to have “fun” so they brought alcohol in secret
How did Prohibition help increase the presence of organized crime in America?

it was fight over evolution and the role of science and religion in public schools and in american society, evidence of the changes and conflicts occurring during the 1920’s
How did the Scopes trial represent one of the major themes of the 1920s?

a young woman who embraces the new fashions and urban attitudes of the day

Double Standard
a set of principles granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women

more careers, right to vote, drank, smoke, daring, sexually promiscuous, wore revealing clothing (be able to explain) wore make-up did men activities such as drinking, smoking, started the movement of the modern day movement
Identify some of the changes for women in the 1920s

took risks and were reckless, characterized by stark truthfulness, fast living, and sexual behavior, clothing was trimmed down and lightened for easier movement, lots of make-up, hair was a bob or the shingle
In what ways did flappers rebel against the earlier style and attitudes of the Victorian age?

Charles Lindbergh
american hero and small-town pilot who made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic; stood for honesty and bravery, inspired many

George Gershwin
concert music composer who merged traditional elements with American jazz

Georgia O’Keeffe
an artist who made intensely colored canvases that capture New York

F. Scott Fitzgerald
author who revealed the negative side of the 1920s in his books, such as “The Great Gatsby”

Ernest Hemingway
became a known AUTHOR; criticized glorification of war and had a simplified style of writing; wrote “The Sun Will Also Rise”

music was jazz based and live, George had an orchestra and was a composer, Duke was a jazz musician
Describe the music of the 1920s. Identify George Gershwin and Duke Ellington?

was viewed as a hero, reshaped baseball, made many home runs, 60 years would pass before record broke, baseball was America’s past time
Identify Babe Ruth and describe the importance of baseball in the lives of Americans in the 1920s

made it easy to communicate, used by everyone so message got around quickly
How did the radio help create a shared national experience?

Marcus Garvey
Jamaican immigrant believed that African Americans should build a separate society; founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and encouraged his followers to return to Africa and build a nation he awakened black pride, economic independence, and reverence for Africa

Harlem Renaissance
a literary and artistic movement celebrating African American culture

Langston Hughes
best-known POET who described the difficult lives of working class African Americans

Zora Neale Hurston
attended Harvard University who told powerful tales that led her to New York, “good life in America” great opportunities

Paul Robeseon
became a major dramatic ACTOR; performed in Othello but struggled with racism, got support from Soviet Union

Louis Armstrong
a member of the Creole Jazz Band who made personal expression a key part of jazz; one of the most influential musicians in the history of jazz

Duke Ellington
jazz pianist and composer who led his orchestra at the cotton club; one of the greatest composers

Bessie Smith
FEMALE blues singer; achieved huge popularity and became the highest-paid black artist at the time

capital of jazz, new negro born
Identify the contributions of the Harlem Renaissance to American art and literature

communism, immigration, labor & rest
List the three post war trends

made transportation easier, people went on vacations, new technology, people could go as they please, people were not limited, made life accessible
What was the impact of the automobile?

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