Chapter 11: Social Psychology

Examine the effects of social variables and cognitions; attempts to understand behavior within its social context
Social Psychology

the external environument, or the behavioral context, can have both subtle and forceful effects on people’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors.
situationism

tendency to attribute behavior to internal factors such as genes, personality traits, and character qualities
dispositionism

socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of persons in a given setting or group
social role

a group’s expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for its members’ attitudes and behavior
social norms

who conducted the line experiment for conformity?
the Asch studies

What group characteristics that impact conformity?
-when the group majority is unanimous
-the size of the group
-judgment task = ambiguous
-group members = competent
-responses are given publicly

members of the group attempt to conform their opinions to what each believes to be the consensus of the group
groupthink

What are conditions that are most likely to promote groupthink?
-directive leadership
-high group cohesiveness
-lack of norms requiring methodical procedures
-homogeneity of members’ social background and ideology
-high stress from external threats with low hope of a better solution

What psychology experiment demonstrated obedience to authority?
the milgram experiment

the experiment where a man wearing a lab coat asked a test subject to deliver electric shocks to a learner who got answers incorrectly
milgram’s experiment

when are we most likely to obey authority?
-when a peer modeled obedience
-when the victim could not be seen or heard
-when under direct surveillance
-when the authority had higher relative status

what are some real life examples of the milgram experiment?
the fast-food restaurant authority hoax

dilution or weakening of each group member’s obligation to act when responsibility is perceived to be shared with all group members
diffusion of responsibility

what are the four rewards that can predict interpersonal attraction?
proximity
similarity
self-disclosure
physical attractiveness

people decide whether or not to pursue a relationship by weighing the potential value of the relationship against their expectations of success in establishing the relationship. What theory is this?
expectancy-value theory

a highly motivating state in which people have conflicting cognition, especially when their voluntary actions conflict with the attitudes or values (Fessinger)
What theory is this?
cognitive-dissonance theory

who developed the triangular theory of love?
sternberg

the tendency to emphasize personal traits and minimize situational influences
fundamental attribution error

attributional pattern in which one takes credit for successes but denies responsibility for failures
self-serving bias

theory that people are motivated to explain own and others’ behavior by attributing causes of behavior to situation or disposition
attribution theory

tendency to overestimate personality factors and underestimate situational influence
fundamental attribution error

Cognitive schemas of a group, in which a person believes that all members of a group share common traits
stereotypes

a negative attitude toward an individual based solely on his or her membership in a particular group
prejudice

a negative action taken against an individual as a result of his or her group membership
discrimination

the group with which an individual identifies
in-group

those outside the group with which an individual identifies
out-group

the perceived difference or similarity between oneself and another person
social distance

what are some causes of prejudice?
dissimilarity and social distance
economic competition
scapegoating
conformity to social norms
media stereotypes
dehumanization

what study that was conducted to prove that systems influence behavior?
the stanford prision experiment

While watching Jeopardy, your roommate says, “Alex Trebek knows all the answers. He must be a genius.” You tell your roommate she probably would not have said that if she had attended class the day the instructor discussed the topic of…
fundamental attribution errors

________ is the field that studies human interactions and behaviors.
Social psychology

Dave believes all college professors are irritable, impatient, and uninterested in whether students learn. His belief is an example of
a prejudice

The Asch effect is known as the classic illustration of
conformity

When there is a large group of bystanders, individuals are likely to experience
diffusion of responsibility.

The term psychologists use for how close two people live to each other is
proximity.

The results of Milgram’s studies of obedience challenges the myth that
only certain people would blindly follow orders to harm another

The best predictor of whether a person will respond in an emergency situation is
the size of the group

The key components of love, according to Robert Sternberg, are
passion, intimacy, and commitment.

Jada is a Republican, but she is currently working for a Democratic candidate. As a result of ________, Jada may shift her political views.
cognitive dissonance

Diathesis can be defined as a predisposition for a disease Kaylie has been diagnosed with both social phobia and depression. Kaylie’s case exemplifies: comorbidity WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE …

Conformity is one of the most important issues in psychology with regards to its relevance in society. It is a phenomenon that has always existed in modern culture, able to change people’s behaviour to the extent that they are “willing …

Human behavior has been identified to be affected and influenced by those they interact with as their immediate family members, friends and co- workers, peer group etc. thus, ones id (identity) can be influenced by the group which he/ she …

“A branch of ‘social psychology’ concerned with the study of groups. [Areas of research include the] Interactions [of group members], cohesiveness of groups, leadership, and group decision processes. ” The Dictionary of Behavioural Science (Wolman B. B. 1989) It can …

In explaining the behavior of people, it is acceptable that it starts with description in reference to some kind of active driving force: the individual seeks, the individual wants, the individual fears. Various psychologists describe motivation, in other words, as …

An important part of social cognition is Causality- the factors that cause events or behaviours to happen. Attribution is the process people use to work out what caused an event or behaviour. The conditions that affect how we attribute causes …

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