Chapter 11 Endocrine System

endocrine system
a collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. instrumental in maintaining homeostasis

hormones
chemicals that act on their target organs to either increase or decrease the target’s activity level

homeostasis
adjusting the activity level of most of the tissues and organs of the body to maintain a stable internal envrionment

exocrine and endocrine glands
the body has two distinct types of glands

exocrine glands
release their secretions into a duct that carries them to the outside of the body or to a passageway connected to the outside of the body. for example, sweat glands release seat into a sweat duct that travels to the surface of the body

endocrine glands
release hormones directly into the bloodstream. for example, the thyroid gland secretes its hormones directly into the bloodstream. because they have no ducts, they are also referred to as ductless glands

endocrine system
consists of the following glands: two adrenal glands, two ovaries in the female, four parathyroid glands, the pancreas, the pineal gland, the pituitary gland, two testes in the male, the thymus gland, and the thyroid gland

adrenal glands
these two glands are located on each side of the kidneys. each gland is composed of two sections: adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla

adrenal cortex
manufactures several different families of hormones: mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, and steroid sex hormones.

corticosteroids
mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, and steroid sex hormones. they are all produced by the cortex, so they are collectively referred to as this

aldosterone
the minteralcorticoid hormone. regulates sodium and potassium levels in the body.

cortisol
the glucocorticoid hormone regulates carbohydrates in the body

androgens
sex hormones (may be converted to estrogen once released into the bloodstream). these hormones regulate secondary sexual characteristics. all hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex are steroid hormones

adrenal medulla
responsible for secreting the hormones epinephrine, also called adrenaline, and norepinephrine

epinephrine and norepinephrine
these hormones are critical during emergency situations because they increase blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration levels. this helps the body perform better during emergencies or otherwise stressful times

ovaries
these two are located in the lower abdominopelvic cavity of the female. they are the female gonads. they produce the female set of hormones, estrogen and progesterone

gonads
organs that produce gametes or the reproductive sex cells

gametes
the reproductive sex cells. in the case of females, these are the ova

estrogen
responsible for the appearance of the female sexual characteristics and regulation of the menstrual cycle

progesterone
hellps to maintain a stable uterine environment for pregnancy

pancreas
located along the lower curvature of the stomach. it is the only organ in the body that has both endocrine and exocrine functions. the exocrine portion of it releases digestive enzymes through a duct into the duodenum of the small intestine. the endocrine sections of the pancreas, islets of Langerhans, are named after dr. paul langerhans, a german anatomist

islets of Langerhans
the endocrine sections of the pancreas. the islets cells produce two different hormones: insulin and glucagon

insulin
produced by beta islet cells, stimulates the cells of the body to take in glucose from the bloodstream, lowering the body’s blood sugar level. this occurs after a meal has been eaten and the carbohydrates are absorbed into the bloodstream. in this way, the cells obtain the glucose they need for cellular respiration

glucagon
produced by alpha cells, another set of islet cells. this stimulates the liver to release glucose, thereby raising the blood glucose level. it is released when the body needs more sugar, such as at the beginning of strenuous activity or several hours after the last meal has been digested. insulin will reduce the blood sugar level, while glucagon will increase it

parathyroid glands
the four of these tiny glands are located on the dorsal surface of the thyroid gland. secretes the parathyroid hormone

parathyroid hormone
the hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands regulates the amount of calcium in the blood. if blood calcium levels fall too low, these hormone levels in the blood are increased and will stimulate bone breakdowns to release more calcium into the blood

pineal gland
a small pine cone shaped gland that is part of the thalamus region of the brain. it secretes melatonin

melatonin
a hormone not well understood, but plays a role in regulating the body’s circadian rhythm, which is the 24 hour clock that governs our period of wakefulness and sleepiness

pituitary gland
gland located underneath the brain. the small marble shaped gland is divided into an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe

hypothalamus
both lobes of the pituitary gland are controlled by this. a region of the brain active in regulating automatic body responses

anterior pituitary
secretes several different hormones: growth hormone (somatotropin), thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropin hormone, , prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone

growth hormone
also called somatotropin. promotes growth of the body by stimulating cells to rapidly increase in size and divide

thyroid-stimulating hormone
this hormone regulates the function of the thyroid gland

adrenocorticotropin hormone
this hormone regulates the function of the adrenal cortex

prolactin
this hormone stimulates milk production in the breast following pregnancy and birth

follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
these two hormones both exert their influence on the male and female gonads. therefore, these two hormones together are referred to as the gonadotrophins

follicle-stimulating hormone
this hormone is responsible for the development of ova in ovaries and sperm in testes.

luteinizing hormone
this hormone stimulates secretion of sex hormones in both males and females and plays a role in releasing ova in females.

melanocyte-stimulating hormone
this hormone stimulates melanocytes to produce more melanin, thereby darkening the skin

posterior pituitary
secretes two hormones, antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin

antidiuretic hormone
this hormone promotes water reabsorption by the kidney tubules

oxytocin
stimulates uterine contractions during labor and delivery, and after birth the release of milk from the mammary glands

testes
to oval glands located in the scrotal sac of the male. they are the male gonads, which produce the male gametes, sperm, and the male sex hormone, testosterone

testosterone
the male sex hormone. produces the male secondary sexual characteristics and regulates sperm production

thymus gland
in addition to its role as part of the immune system, this is also one of the endocrine glands because it secretes the hormone thymosin. located in the mediastinal cavity anterior and superior to the heart. present at birth and grows to its largest size during puberty. at puberty it begins to shrink and eventually is replaced with connective tissue and adipose tissue.

thymosin
this hormone is important for proper development of the immune system.

thymus gland
the most important function of this gland is the development of the immune system in the newborn, it is essential to the growth and development of thymic lymphocytes or T cells, which are critical for the body’s immune system

thyroid gland
this gland, which resembles a butterfly in shape, has right and left lobes. located on either side of the trachea and larynx. the thyroid cartilage, or Adam’s apple, is located just above this. this gland produces the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. also secretes calcitonin in response to hypercalcemia

thyroxine and triiodothyronine
these hormones are produced in the thyroid gland from the mineral iodine. they help to regulate the production of energy and heat in the body to adjust the body’s metabolic rate

calcitonin
this hormone’s action is the opposite of parathyroid hormone and stimulates the increased deposition of calcium into bone, thereby lowering blood levels of calcium

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Function of Endocrine System Exerts control over body functions by releasing hormones into the blood. Hormones Chemicals secreted into the bloodstream from the endocrine system that typically act on distant target cells or tissues. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

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