chapter 11 and 12

motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. (p. 404)

instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned. (p. 404)

drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. (p. 405)

homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level. (p. 405)

incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.

hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active. (p. 406)

glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger. (p. 409)

set-point
the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight. (p. 409)

basal-metabolic rate
the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure. (p. 410)

sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson—excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. 420

refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm. (p. 420)

sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning. (p. 421)

estrogens
sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity. (p. 421)

testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty. (pp. 157, 421)

emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience. (p. 460)

james-lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. (p. 460)

cannon-bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion. (p. 460)

two factor theory
the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal. (p. 461)

polygraph
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes) accompanying emotion. (p. 468)

facial feedback effect
the tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness. (p. 474)

robert
_____ says that we actually have many emotional reactions apart from, or even before, our interpretations of a situation.
Robert Zajonc
Henry James
Walter Cannon
Richard Lazarus

increases salivation and increases blood pressure
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system:
increases salivation and increases blood pressure.
decreases salivation and increases blood pressure.
decreases salivation and decreases blood pressure.
increases salivation and decreases blood pressure.

cannon bard
Which theory of emotion emphasizes the simultaneous experience of body response and emotional feeling?
James-Lange theory
Cannon-Bard theory
Lazarus theory
two-factor theory

arousal, calming
The sympathetic nervous system is to _____ as the parasympathetic nervous system is to _____.

increases
Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system _____ salivation and decreases blood pressure.

decreases salivation and increases blood pressure.
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system:
increases salivation and increases blood pressure.
decreases salivation and decreases blood pressure.
decreases salivation and increases blood pressure.
increases salivation and decreases blood pressure.

after physical response
The James-Lange theory of emotion states that we experience emotion:
simultaneously with our physical response.
after we experience a physical response.
instantly, before cognitive appraisal.
when we appraise an event as harmful or harmless.

left frontal
Exuberant infants and alert, energetic adults are especially likely to show high levels of brain activity in the:
limbic system.
sensory cortex.
cerebellum.
left frontal lobe.

Schachter-Singer
According to the _____ two-factor theory of emotion, the correct sequence of events when a car drives directly toward us and we experience emotion is: see an oncoming car; heart pounds and, at the same time, the arousal is cognitively labeled; experience fear.

Robert Zajonc and Joseph LeDoux
_____ have shown that some emotional responses involve no conscious thinking.
Robert Zajonc and Joseph LeDoux
Carole Gilligan and Robert Zajonc
Walter Cannon and Karen Horney
Richard Lazarus and Joseph LeDoux

right frontal
A person who is depression-prone tends to have increased activity in his or her:
left frontal lobe.
left hemisphere.
right frontal lobe.
amygdala.

Schachter-Singer
We note that we are aroused, but could label our emotion as fear or excitement depending on whether we have just avoided a car accident, or just rode a roller coaster. Which theory best describes this?
Schachter-Singer
Cannon-Bard
Lazarus
James-Lange

walter
Who suggested that very similar physiological reactions are associated with a variety of different emotions?
Walter Cannon
William James
Charles Darwin
Robert Zajonc

lazerus
_____ conceded that our brains process and react to vast amounts of information without our conscious awareness.
Walter Cannon
Karen Horney
Richard Lazarus
Robert Zajonc

instantly
Robert Zajonc’s theory of emotion suggests that we experience emotion:
simultaneously with our physical response.
instantly, before cognitive appraisal.
after we experience a physical response.
when we appraise an event as harmful or harmless.

calming
The sympathetic nervous system is to arousal as the parasympathetic nervous system is to _____.

Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer.
To experience an emotion, a person must be physically aroused and cognitively label that arousal. This theory of emotion was suggested by:
William James and Carl Lange.
Walter Cannon and Philip Bard.
Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer.
John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner.

robert
_____ says that we actually have many emotional reactions apart from, or even before, our interpretations of a situation.
Walter Cannon
Richard Lazarus
Henry James
Robert Zajonc

spillover
When people are stimulated by an exciting soccer match, their excitement can fuel and intensify anger. This effect is known as:
emotional determinism.
optimal arousal.
the spillover effect.
the James-Lange theory.

emotion
A response of the whole organism to a stimulus that includes a mixture of physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience is called:
stress
emotion
coping
catharsis

conscious
Emotion is a response that includes physiological arousal, expressive behavior, and _____ experience.

cry, tremble
William James would suggest that we feel sorry because we _____ and are afraid because we _____.
cry; tremble
label something sad; label something frightening
subjectively experience sadness; subjectively experience fear
perceive something as sad; perceive something as frightening

simultaneous
The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion that emphasizes the _____ experience of body response and emotional feeling.

cognitive
According to Schachter and Singer, two factors lead to our experience of an emotion: physical arousal and ____ appraisal.

slowing her heart rate and activating her digestion.
Nina was almost hit by a bus. However, she is okay and her parasympathetic system is responding accordingly. It is:
contracting her pupils and increasing respiration.
contracting her pupils and increasing secretion of stress hormones.
slowing her heart rate and inhibiting her digestion.
slowing her heart rate and activating her digestion.

well, moderate
Julie is competing in a basketball free throw contest. She is likely to perform _____ if her physiological arousal during the performance is _____.
poorly; moderate
well; very high
well; very low
well; moderate

washburn
According to research by _____, one reason we feel hungry is because of stomach pangs.

insulin
_____ is a hormone secreted by the pancreas to control blood glucose.
Orexin
Insulin
PYY
Leptin

pyy
_____ is a digestive tract hormone that sends “I’m not hungry” signals to the brain.

orexin
_____ is a hunger-triggering hormone secreted by the hypothalamus.
Leptin
PYY
Ghrelin
Orexin

ghrelin
This is a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach.
ghrelin
leptin
orexin
melatonin

unit bias
In collaboration with researchers at France’s National Center for Scientific Research, Andrew Geier (2006) explored a possible explanation for why French waistlines are smaller than American waistlines. This was called:
unit bias.
factor analysis.
neophobia.
social facilitation.

set point
When the body falls below its _____, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
homeostasis
refractory period
set point
difference threshold

glucose
When the level of _____ in the blood is low, people feel hunger.

nucleus
A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its arcuate _____ is destroyed.

fat
_____ is an ideal form of stored energy.
Glucose
Protein
Fat
Orexin

Carbohydrates help to increase levels of serotonin, which can have calming effects.
A friend is feeling very edgy about an upcoming test and is consuming large quantities of starchy, carbohydrate-laden foods. But, she is also surprised by how much of this type of food she is eating. What can you tell her that will explain her eating behavior?
Carbohydrates help to increase levels of norepinephrine, which can have calming effects.
Carbohydrates help to increase levels of serotonin, which can have calming effects.
Carbohydrates decrease levels of GABA, which can help you sleep.
Carbohydrates help to increase levels of glutamate, which can have calming effects.

glucose
When the level of _____ in the blood is low, people feel hunger.

esteem
According to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the need for recognition and respect from others is known as:
esteem.
physiological.
safety.
belongingness and love.

drive reduction
Lara’s mouth is dry and she realizes that she has not had anything to drink all morning. The water level in her cells has dropped and she feels thirsty. Watching people drink large glasses of soda is upsetting her and, at the next opportunity, she will take an extra-large drink. Which of the following can be used to explain why Lara is motivated to get a drink?
set-point theory
drive-reduction theory
basal metabolic rate
human factor

rooting
_____ is an example of an instinct in human infants.

drive reduction
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need is known as _____ theory.

explain
One objection to the instinct theory of motivation is that it does not _____ human behaviors but simply names them.

incentives
Not only are we pushed by our need to reduce drives, we also are pulled by:
heuristics.
incentives.
phonemes.
prototypes.

homeostasis
By motivating us to satisfy our physical needs, hunger and thirst serve to maintain _____.

drive reduction
Whenever physiological need increases, such as when we get thirsty or hungry, psychological drive also goes up. This is an example of _____ theory.

physiological
According to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the need to satisfy hunger and thirst is known as:
physiological needs.
safety needs.
self-actualization needs.
esteem needs.

optimum
According to the text, human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek _____ levels of arousal.
optimum
maximum
minimum
inferior

unlearned
An instinct is a complex behavior that has a fixed pattern throughout a species and is _____.

instinct theory
The perspective on motivation that focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors is known as:
drive-reduction theory.
instinct theory.
arousal theory.
hierarchy of needs.

arousal
Many 9-month-old infants will investigate every accessible corner of the house out of curiosity. This is an example of:
hierarchy of needs.
instinct theory.
drive-reduction theory.
arousal theory.

drive-reduction
The perspective on motivation that focuses on how inner pushes and external pulls interact is known as:
arousal theory.
instinct theory.
drive-reduction theory.
hierarchy of needs.

safety
According to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the need to feel that the world is an organized and predictable place is a _____ need.
physiological
self-actualization
safety
esteem

self-actualization
According to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the need to live up to an individual’s unique and fullest potential is known as:
belongingness and love.
self-actualization.
safety.
esteem.

increase
Some motivated behaviors, such as curiosity, actually _____ arousal.
maintain
dissuade
decrease
increase

hierarchy
The perspective on motivation that describes how some of our needs take priority over others is known as:
instinct theory.
drive-reduction theory.
hierarchy of needs.
arousal theory.

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emotion: a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience (emotion) James-Lange theory: the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli (James-Lange theory) …

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The arousal level can be thought of as how much capacity you have available to work with. The concept of arousal relates to the activities of the ANS, this is also known as the Automatic Nervous System. The automatic nervous …

A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its ________ is destroyed. A) lateral thalamus B) ventromedial thalamus C) lateral hypothalamus D) ventromedial hypothalamus C) lateral hypothalamus The secretion of PYY _________ hunger and the secretion of orexin …

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