Chapter 10 – Principles of Pharmacology

A process in which a fixed amount of a substance is removed during a certain period, regardless of the total amount in the body.
zero-order elimination

A property the indicates a material can be dissolved in water.

The extent to which a medication will spread within the body.
volume of distribution

A classification scheme based on the mechanism of action rather than on specific medication groups.

A clinical change caused by a medication that causes harm of discomfort to a patient. Also known as an adverse effect.
untoward effect

A condition that develops following related use by a PT of med that results in decreed efficacy or potency.

pharmacologic context: concentration of medication at which initiation or alternation of cellular activity begins
threshold level

relationship between the median effective does and the median legal dose or median toxic dose; also known as the therapeutic ratio
therapeutic index

condition in which repeated doses of med within a short period rapidly cause tolerance, making the med virtually ineffective

meds admin to stimulate the sympathetic NS

med or chemical that temporarily enhances CNS and sympathetic NS functioning

severe, possibly fatal reaction that mimics a burn, may be due to medication
Stevens-Johnson syndrome

period in the cell-firing cycle at which it is possible but difficult to restimulate the cell to fire another impulse
relative refractory period

specialized area in tissues that initiates certain actions after specific stimulations

relationship between the desired response of a med and the does required to achieve the response

process in which med molecules temporarily attach to proteins in the blood plasma, significantly altering med distribution in the body
plasma protein binding

pharmacologic context: positive and negative effects of an inactive med on a person that are related to the person’s expect ions and other factors
placebo effect

process by which cells ingest the extracellular fluid and its contents

scientific study of how various substances interact with or alter the function of living organisms

fate of meds in the body, such as distribution and elimination

biochemical and physiologic effects and MoA in the body

pharmacology context: point of max effect of a drug

chemical that binds to the receptor site but does not initiate as much cellular activity or change as other agonists do; lowers the efficacy of other agonist chemicals presents at the cell
partial agonist

opposite from expected

characterized by the movement of a solvent across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower to higher concentration of solute molecules

movement of a solvent from an area of low solute concentration to one of high concentration through a selectively permeable membrane to equalize concentrations of a solute on both sides of the membrane

time needed for the concentration of the med at the target tissue to reach the min effective level


term used to describe drugs that produce muscle realization by interfering with impulses between the nerve ending and muscle receptor.

meds that permanently bind with receptor sites and prevent activation by agonist chemicals
noncompetitive antagonist

mile to severe reaction after the first exposure to a med or other substance, often with may of the same signs and symptoms as an immune-mediated reaction
medication sensitivity

document that give detailed information about drugs, such as the indication and uses, dosing information, precautions, contraindications, and adverse effects
medication monograph

weight-based dose of a med that demonstrated toxicity in 50% of the animals tested
median toxic does (TD50)

weight-based does of a med that caused death in 50% of the animals tested
median lethal does (LD50)

weight-based does of a med that was effective in 50% of the humans and animals tested
median effective does (ED50)

attracted to fats or lipids

one med or chemical taken by a PT that undermine the effectiveness of another med taken by or admin to a PT

charged particles

med that has undergone biotransformation and now is no longer able to alter a cell process or body function
inactive metabolite

pharmacologic context: abnormal susceptibility of a med, possibly due to genetic traits or dysfunction of a metabolic enzyme, that is peculiar to an individual PT

attracted to water molecules

destruction of RBC’s by disruption of the cell membrane

percentage of RBC’s in a blood sample

time needed in an average person for metabolism or elimination of 50% of a substance in the plasma

unusual tolerance to the therapeutic and adverse clinical effects of a me or chemical

process in which the rate of elimination is directly influenced by plasma levels of a substance
first-order elimination

use of hydrostatic pressure to force water or dissolved particles through a semipermeable membrane

brief, uncoordinated, visible twitching of small muscle groups; may be caused by the admin of depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent
– succs

process of med molecules binding with carrier proteins when no energy is expended
facilitated diffusion

seepage of blood and med into the tissue surrounding blood vessel

originating outside the organism

originating from within the organism

pharmacologic context: removal of a med or its by-products from the body

pharmacologic context: ability of a med to produce the desired effect

sites of generation of electrical impulses other than normal pacemaker cells
ectopic foci

pertaining to voluntary muscle movements that are distorted or impaired because of abnormal muscle tone

time a medication concentration can be expected to remain about the min level needed to provide the intended action
duration of effect

process in which a mechanism reducing available cell receptors for a particular med results in tolerance

specific amount of a med to be given at a specific interval

graphic illustration of the response of a drug according to the dose admin
dose-response curve

chemical that increase urinary output

movement and transport of a med throughout the bloodstream to tissues and cells, and ultimate mate its target receptor

chemical or med that decreases the performance of the CNS or sympathetic NS

process of discharging resting cardiac muscle fibers by an electric impulse that causes them to contract

physical, behavioral, or emotional need for a med or chemical in order to maintain “normal” physiologic function

hemoprotcytochrome P-450 system involved in the detoxification of many drugs
cytochrome P-450 system

several smaller doses of a particular med capable of producing the same clinical effects as a single larger does of that same med
cumulative action

process in which repeated exposure to ames within a particular class causes a tolerance that may be “transferred” to other meds in the same class

term used to describe paralytic agent that act at the neuromuscular junction by binding with nicotinic receptors on muscles, causing fasciculation’s and preventing additional activation by ACh.
competitive depolarizing

meds that temporarily bind with cellular receptors sites, displacing agonist chemicals
competitive antagonist

term to describe the fibers in the parasympathetic NS that real seas a chemical acetylcholine

meds that bind with heavy metals in the body and create a compound that can be eliminated
– ingestion or poisonings
chelating agents

process with 4 possible effects of a medication absorbed into the body
1. inactive substance becomes active, capable of producing desired or unwanted clinical effects
2. active med can be changed into another active med
3. active med becomes partially or completely inactive
4. meds is transformed into a substance that is eaters to eliminate from body

percentage of the unchanged medication that reaches systemic circulation

state in which cardiac cellos are at rest, waiting for the generation of a spontaneous impulse from within

medications used to kill or suppress the growth of microorganisms

meds used to treat fungal infections

meds used to fight infection by killing the microorganisms or preventing their multiplication to allow the body’s immune system to overcome them

group of medication that prevent endogenous or exogenous agonist chemical from reaching cell receptor sites an initiating or altering a particular cellular activity
antagonist medications

an extreme systemic form of an allergic reaction involving two or more body systems

group of meds that initiates or alters a cellular activity by attaching to receptor sites
– promotes cellular response
agonist medications

ability of a medication to bind with a particular receptor site

process of molecules binding with carrier proteins when energy is used to move the molecules against a concentration gradient
active transport

medication that has undergone biotransformation and is able to alter a cellular process or body function
active metabolite

enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine

process by which the molecules of a substance are moved from the site of entry to admin to systemic circulation

early phase of cardiac repolarization in which the heart muscle annoy be stimulated to depolarize
absolute refractory period

Absorption Uptake of medications for distribution in the body through or across tissues Active ingredient Medicinal ingredient in a pure, undiluted form of the chemical that has effects on body functions WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY …

Absorption refers to the movement of drug into the bloodstream, with the rate dependent on the physical characteristics of the drug and its formation. Refers to the passage of drug molecules from the site of administration into the circulation. Active …

Angina pectoris: spasmlike pain in the chest caused by myocardial anoxia Bronchodilator: a drug that relaxes the smooth muscle of the bronchioles to improve lung function WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Process by which the body takes in or receives a drug Absorption Action by which a drug is released throughout the body Distribution WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write …

angina pectoris spasmlike pain in the chest caused by myocardial anoxia bronchodilator drug that relaxes contractions of the smooth muscle of the bronchioles to improve lung venthilation WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Angina Pectoris spasm like pain in the chest caused by myocardial anoxia Bronchodilator drug that relaxes contraction of the smooth muscle WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out