Chapter 10 – Principles of Pharmacology

A process in which a fixed amount of a substance is removed during a certain period, regardless of the total amount in the body.
zero-order elimination

A property the indicates a material can be dissolved in water.
water-soluble

The extent to which a medication will spread within the body.
volume of distribution

A classification scheme based on the mechanism of action rather than on specific medication groups.
Vaughan-Williams

A clinical change caused by a medication that causes harm of discomfort to a patient. Also known as an adverse effect.
untoward effect

A condition that develops following related use by a PT of med that results in decreed efficacy or potency.
tolerance

pharmacologic context: concentration of medication at which initiation or alternation of cellular activity begins
threshold level

relationship between the median effective does and the median legal dose or median toxic dose; also known as the therapeutic ratio
therapeutic index

condition in which repeated doses of med within a short period rapidly cause tolerance, making the med virtually ineffective
tachyphylaxis

meds admin to stimulate the sympathetic NS
sympathomimetic

med or chemical that temporarily enhances CNS and sympathetic NS functioning
stimulant

severe, possibly fatal reaction that mimics a burn, may be due to medication
Stevens-Johnson syndrome

period in the cell-firing cycle at which it is possible but difficult to restimulate the cell to fire another impulse
relative refractory period

specialized area in tissues that initiates certain actions after specific stimulations
receptor

relationship between the desired response of a med and the does required to achieve the response
potency

process in which med molecules temporarily attach to proteins in the blood plasma, significantly altering med distribution in the body
plasma protein binding

pharmacologic context: positive and negative effects of an inactive med on a person that are related to the person’s expect ions and other factors
placebo effect

process by which cells ingest the extracellular fluid and its contents
pinocytosis

scientific study of how various substances interact with or alter the function of living organisms
pharmacology

fate of meds in the body, such as distribution and elimination
pharmacokinetics

biochemical and physiologic effects and MoA in the body
pharmacodynamics

pharmacology context: point of max effect of a drug
peak

chemical that binds to the receptor site but does not initiate as much cellular activity or change as other agonists do; lowers the efficacy of other agonist chemicals presents at the cell
partial agonist

opposite from expected
paradoxical

characterized by the movement of a solvent across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower to higher concentration of solute molecules
osmotic

movement of a solvent from an area of low solute concentration to one of high concentration through a selectively permeable membrane to equalize concentrations of a solute on both sides of the membrane
osmosis

time needed for the concentration of the med at the target tissue to reach the min effective level
onset

uncharged
nonionic

term used to describe drugs that produce muscle realization by interfering with impulses between the nerve ending and muscle receptor.
nondepolarizing

meds that permanently bind with receptor sites and prevent activation by agonist chemicals
noncompetitive antagonist

mile to severe reaction after the first exposure to a med or other substance, often with may of the same signs and symptoms as an immune-mediated reaction
medication sensitivity

document that give detailed information about drugs, such as the indication and uses, dosing information, precautions, contraindications, and adverse effects
medication monograph

weight-based dose of a med that demonstrated toxicity in 50% of the animals tested
median toxic does (TD50)

weight-based does of a med that caused death in 50% of the animals tested
median lethal does (LD50)

weight-based does of a med that was effective in 50% of the humans and animals tested
median effective does (ED50)

attracted to fats or lipids
lipophilic

one med or chemical taken by a PT that undermine the effectiveness of another med taken by or admin to a PT
interference

charged particles
ions

med that has undergone biotransformation and now is no longer able to alter a cell process or body function
inactive metabolite

pharmacologic context: abnormal susceptibility of a med, possibly due to genetic traits or dysfunction of a metabolic enzyme, that is peculiar to an individual PT
idiosyncratic

attracted to water molecules
hydrophilic

destruction of RBC’s by disruption of the cell membrane
hemolysis

percentage of RBC’s in a blood sample
hematrocrit

time needed in an average person for metabolism or elimination of 50% of a substance in the plasma
half-life

unusual tolerance to the therapeutic and adverse clinical effects of a me or chemical
habituation

process in which the rate of elimination is directly influenced by plasma levels of a substance
first-order elimination

use of hydrostatic pressure to force water or dissolved particles through a semipermeable membrane
filtration

brief, uncoordinated, visible twitching of small muscle groups; may be caused by the admin of depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent
– succs
fasciculation

process of med molecules binding with carrier proteins when no energy is expended
facilitated diffusion

seepage of blood and med into the tissue surrounding blood vessel
extravasation

originating outside the organism
exogenous

originating from within the organism
endogenous

pharmacologic context: removal of a med or its by-products from the body
elimination

pharmacologic context: ability of a med to produce the desired effect
efficacy

sites of generation of electrical impulses other than normal pacemaker cells
ectopic foci

pertaining to voluntary muscle movements that are distorted or impaired because of abnormal muscle tone
dystonic

time a medication concentration can be expected to remain about the min level needed to provide the intended action
duration of effect

process in which a mechanism reducing available cell receptors for a particular med results in tolerance
down-regulation

specific amount of a med to be given at a specific interval
dosing

graphic illustration of the response of a drug according to the dose admin
dose-response curve

chemical that increase urinary output
diuretic

movement and transport of a med throughout the bloodstream to tissues and cells, and ultimate mate its target receptor
distribution

chemical or med that decreases the performance of the CNS or sympathetic NS
depressant

process of discharging resting cardiac muscle fibers by an electric impulse that causes them to contract
depolarization

physical, behavioral, or emotional need for a med or chemical in order to maintain “normal” physiologic function
dependence

hemoprotcytochrome P-450 system involved in the detoxification of many drugs
cytochrome P-450 system

several smaller doses of a particular med capable of producing the same clinical effects as a single larger does of that same med
cumulative action

process in which repeated exposure to ames within a particular class causes a tolerance that may be “transferred” to other meds in the same class
cross-tolerance

term used to describe paralytic agent that act at the neuromuscular junction by binding with nicotinic receptors on muscles, causing fasciculation’s and preventing additional activation by ACh.
competitive depolarizing

meds that temporarily bind with cellular receptors sites, displacing agonist chemicals
competitive antagonist

term to describe the fibers in the parasympathetic NS that real seas a chemical acetylcholine
cholinergic

meds that bind with heavy metals in the body and create a compound that can be eliminated
– ingestion or poisonings
chelating agents

process with 4 possible effects of a medication absorbed into the body
1. inactive substance becomes active, capable of producing desired or unwanted clinical effects
2. active med can be changed into another active med
3. active med becomes partially or completely inactive
4. meds is transformed into a substance that is eaters to eliminate from body
biotransformation

percentage of the unchanged medication that reaches systemic circulation
bioavailability

state in which cardiac cellos are at rest, waiting for the generation of a spontaneous impulse from within
automaticity

medications used to kill or suppress the growth of microorganisms
antimicrobials

meds used to treat fungal infections
antifungals

meds used to fight infection by killing the microorganisms or preventing their multiplication to allow the body’s immune system to overcome them
antibiotics

group of medication that prevent endogenous or exogenous agonist chemical from reaching cell receptor sites an initiating or altering a particular cellular activity
antagonist medications

an extreme systemic form of an allergic reaction involving two or more body systems
anaphylaxis

group of meds that initiates or alters a cellular activity by attaching to receptor sites
– promotes cellular response
agonist medications

ability of a medication to bind with a particular receptor site
affinity

process of molecules binding with carrier proteins when energy is used to move the molecules against a concentration gradient
active transport

medication that has undergone biotransformation and is able to alter a cellular process or body function
active metabolite

enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine
acetycholinesterase

process by which the molecules of a substance are moved from the site of entry to admin to systemic circulation
absorption

early phase of cardiac repolarization in which the heart muscle annoy be stimulated to depolarize
absolute refractory period

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