Chapter 10 Matching

cauda equina
Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord

ventricles of the brain
Canals in the interior of the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid

ganglion
Collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS

blood-brain barrier
Capillaries that let certain substances enter the brain and keep other substances out of the brain

receptor
Organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves within the body; ear and eye are examples

stimulus
Any change in the internal or external environment that evokes a response

gyrus
Elevation in the surface of the cerebral cortex

sulcus
Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex

plexus
Large, interlacing network of nerves

brainstem
Lower portion of the brain connecting the cerebrum with the spinal cord

glial cell
Astrocyte is an example

dendrite
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell; first part of the neuron to receive the nervous impulse

parenchyma
Essential, distinguishing cells of an organ

synapse
Space through which a nervous impulse is transmitted

acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter

central nervous system
Brain and the spinal cord

sensory nerve
Carries messages to the brain and spinal cord

axon
Microscopic nerve fiber that carries impulse from the cell body along the nerve cell

autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves

myelin sheath
Fatty tissue surrounding and protecting the axon of a nerve cell

pons
Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and rest of the midbrain

neurotransmitter
Chemical messenger, released at the end of a nerve cell

parenchyma
Essential, distinguishing tissue of an organ or system

pia mater
Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges

receptor
Organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to afferent nerves

microglial cell
Phagocytic glial cell

plexus
Large, interlacing network of nerves

peripheral nervous system
Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord including cranial and spinal nerves

parasympathetic nerves
Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and gastrointestinal muscles

oligodendroglial cell
Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons

meninges
Three protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord

axon
Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell

plexus
A large interlacing network of nerves

dendrite
Branching fiber that is the first part of a neuron to receive a nervous impulse

myelin sheath
Protective fatty tissue that surrounds the axon of a nerve cell

cauda equina
Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord

oligodendroglia
Glial cell that produces myelin

cerebral cortex
Outer region of the largest part of the brain; composed of gray matter

thalamus
Main relay center of the brain

neurotransmitter
Chemical messenger released at the end of neurons

dura mater
Outermost layer of meninges

cerebrum
Largest part of the brain

cerebellum
Part of the brain that coordinates muscle movement and maintains balance

hypothalamus
Beneath the thalamus; controls appetite, sleep, and the pituitary gland

pia mater
Thin, delicate inner membrane of meninges

medulla oblongata
Part of the brain that controls respiration, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels

arachnoid membrane
Middle meningeal membrane; spider-like

pons
Lying between the medulla and the rest of the brain; bridge connecting various parts of the brain

sensory nerve
Carries messages toward the brain from receptors

parenchymal cell
Essential cell of the nervous system; a neuron

pia mater
Innermost meningeal membrane

gyri
Elevations in the cerebral cortex

neurotransmitter
Acetylcholine is an example of this chemical released into a synapse, subarachnoid space:Contains cerebrospinal fluid

multiple sclerosis
Destruction of myelin sheath; replacement by plaques of hard scar tissue

epilepsy
Sudden, transient disturbances of brain function marked by seizures

myasthenia gravis
Loss of muscle strength; breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter

Parkinson disease
Degeneration of nerves in the brain leading to tremors, shuffling gait, and muscle stiffness (mask-like facial expression); dopamine is deficient in the brain

Alzheimer disease
Deterioration of mental capacity (dementia) beginning in middle age; cerebral cortex atrophy, microscopic neurofibrillary tangles, Bell palsy:Unilateral facial paralysis

bradykinesia
Slow movement

hyperesthesia
Increased nervous sensation

narcolepsy
Seizure of sleep

apraxia
Movements and behavior are not purposeful

syncope
Fainting

causalgia
Burning pain

ataxia
No coordination

hemiparesis
Slight paralysis in half the body

embolus
A floating clot; mass of material suddenly blocks a blood vessel

palliative
Relieving symptoms, but not curing

transient ischemic attack
Mini-stroke

cerebral angiography
X-ray record of blood vessels within the brain

dementia
Mental decline and deterioration

cerebral hemorrhage
Breakage of a blood vessel within the brain

sulcus
Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex

stroma
Connective and supporting tissue of an organ; glial cells of the brain

vagus nerve
Tenth cranial nerve

sensory nerve
Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord; afferent nerve

thalamus
Main relay center of the brain

sympathetic nerves
Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress

sciatic nerve
Spinal nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg and foot

stimulus
Agent of change (light, sound, touch) that evokes a response

hypothalamus
Portion of the brain that controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland

blockage
occlusion

efferent nerve
Motor nerve that carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord

cranial nerves
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain

acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells

stroma
The connective and framework tissue of any organ

meningioma
Benign tumor of the membranes around the brain

apraxia
Movements and behavior are not purposeful

gyri
Elevations on the surface of the cerebral cortex

astrocyte
A type of glial cell

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The peripheral nervous system comprises of all nerves located outside the brain and the spinal cord. The system comprises of sense organs that are used to detect stimuli from inside and outside the body. There are also some special sense …

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