Chapter 10 &11- Forensic Toxicology and Pharmacology

Toxicology
a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine (more specifically pharmacology) concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.

postmortem drug testing
The branch of toxicology focused on the analysis of biofluids after death of the body.

workplace drug testing
A branch of toxicology focused on analysis of employee samples

biofluids
Blood, urine, bile, etc.; fluids obtained from the body

ADME
The process by which a drug moves through the body: absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion

Opiates
A term for the class of narcotic drugs derived from the opium plant, including morphine and codeine. heroin is produced from morphine

depressants
Substance that depress the central nervous system and cause symptoms such as slowed heart rate and breathing

amphetamine
A controlled substance that, along with its analogs such as methamphetamine, creates an excitatory condition (stimulation), state of weakfulness, and euphoria

stimulants
Drugs that produce produces a temporary increase of functional activity or efficiency

Aenorexic

precursors
Substances that can be converted into an abused substances

cocaine
A control substance derived from the erythroxylin cocoa plant that creates an excitatory condition (stimulation), state of wakefulness, and euphoria

cannabiboids
A term applied to marijuana and parts of the plant Cannabis sativa in which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the active

Tetrahydricannabinol (THC)
The active ingredient in Marijuana

Polypharmacy
A mixture of drugs

volume of distribution
An equation that relates dose of a drug to blood concentration

Gas chromatography
Gas flowing through a coated tube separates compounds by their size, weight, and chemical reactivity with the coating of the cube or column

Cyanide
A highly toxic chemical, especially in the form of gas (hydorgen cyanide)

methemoglobin
An oxidized form of hemoglobin.

cyanomethemoglobin
A complex of cyanide and methemoglobin; used to treat cyanide posioning

carboxyhemoglobin
Hemoglobin in which the oxygen has been replaced by carbon monoxide (CO)

thin layer chromatography (TLC)
The use of a solvent that travels through a porous medium to separate compounds based on their chemical affinity with the solvent and the medium

mobile phase
In a chromatographic system such as thin layer chromatography or gas chromatography, the phase that moves.

carrier gas
The mobile phase in gas chromatography (GC)

GC-MS
Acronym for gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

National Institute of High Standards and Technology (NIST)
Federal agency responsible fro setting, approving, and maintaining measurements and materials standards in the United States (formerly National Bureau of Standards)

liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)
An analytical instrument that combines a liquid chromatography with a mass spectrometer as the detect; analogous to GC-MS

thermolabile
A substance that breaks at elevated temperatures

tandem mass spectrometery
A detection system with more than one mass spectrometer in series

colorimetric testing
testing in which a change or production of color is used to screen for compounds

marsh test
first and most famous color-based test for arsenic

inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
A form of mass spectrometry used to detect inorganic materials and metals

Toxicokinetics/ pharmacokinetics
The study of how genetic factors influence toxicology and drug effectiveness

toxicogenetics/ pharmacogenetics
The study of the genetic influences on the responses of organisms to toxins.

postmortem redistribution
The redistribution of drugs in the body that occurs after death

Controlled Substance Act (CSA)
legislation in the US that defines illegal drugs and classifies them by schedules

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
The US government agency responsible for regulation of controlled drugs

Over the counter (OTC)
Medicines that can be purchased without a prescription

cutting agents
A substance added to an illicit drug to reduce the concentration

standards
analytical standards established by a consensus of the scientific community engaged in the analysis of drugs of abuse

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
A group of that establishes national and international standard practices fr procedures and analyses

SWGDRUG
Scientific Working Group for the Analysis of Seized Drugs

Botanical examinations
Study of various plant structure, such as roots, stems, branches, leaves, fruits, or flower, that may be used to determine time and season of death as well as possible prior location of remains

macroscopic examinations
Visual examination generally performed with the unaided eye; used to identify class characteristics

cystolithic (bear-claw shaped) hairs
hairs on the surface of a leaf/ finer clothing

Duquenois-Levine
Chemical color test used to confirm the presence of cannabinoids in plant material

hashish
The resin from marijuana that has been isolated from the plant material

mescaline
A hallucinogen found in cactus buttons

alkaloids
Substance formed by in the plant tissues and in the bodies of animals. Morphine and codeine are alkaloids of opium

psilocin
a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance

psilocybin
a naturally occurring psychedelic compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms

wet chemical procedures
Procedure that involve solvents, extractions, etc.; not instruments

microcrystaline tests
A reaction between the compound of interest and chemical reagent that results in the formation of unique crystals that can be observed with the micrscope

extractions/ liquid extraction
Separation of the compound of interest from the rest of the samples

infrared spectroscopy
Use of the absorption of infrared radiation to produce a chemical fingerprint of a substances; also referred to as IR spectroscopy

clandestine drug laboratories
Illicit location that manufactures controlled substances

Origin of Term “Designer Drug” -From popular science press -R. Baum “Designer Drugs: Underground Chemists Ply a Deadly Trade” —Sept 1985 -W. Gallagher, “Beyond Crack: The Growing Peril of Designer Drugs” —Aug 1986 Definition of Designer Drugs -Synthesized from common …

Pharmacology Study of the biological effects of chemicals Pharmacotherapeutics Branch of pharmacology that deals with drugs (clinical pharmacology) WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Preclinical Drug Trials …

What is pharmacology ? The broad scince of the orgin, mature, chemistry, effects and uses of drugs What is clinical pharmacology? The study of the biological effects of a drug used in a medical treatment and the actions of a …

adverse effect drug effects that are not the desired therapeutic effects; may be unpleasanr or even dangerous brand name name given to a drug by the pharmaceutical company that developed it; also called trade name WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Adverse Effects drugs effects that are not to the desired therapeutic affects; may be unpleasant or even dangerous Brand Name name given to a drug the pharmaceutical company that developed it; also called a trade name WE WILL WRITE A …

Toxicology can be defined as the branch of science that deals with poisons, and a poison can be defined as any substance that causes a harmful effect when administrated, either by accident or design, to a living organism. By convention, …

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