Chapter 10 &11- Forensic Toxicology and Pharmacology

Toxicology
a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine (more specifically pharmacology) concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.
postmortem drug testing
The branch of toxicology focused on the analysis of biofluids after death of the body.
workplace drug testing
A branch of toxicology focused on analysis of employee samples
biofluids
Blood, urine, bile, etc.; fluids obtained from the body
ADME
The process by which a drug moves through the body: absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
Opiates
A term for the class of narcotic drugs derived from the opium plant, including morphine and codeine. heroin is produced from morphine
depressants
Substance that depress the central nervous system and cause symptoms such as slowed heart rate and breathing
amphetamine
A controlled substance that, along with its analogs such as methamphetamine, creates an excitatory condition (stimulation), state of weakfulness, and euphoria
stimulants
Drugs that produce produces a temporary increase of functional activity or efficiency
Aenorexic
precursors
Substances that can be converted into an abused substances
cocaine
A control substance derived from the erythroxylin cocoa plant that creates an excitatory condition (stimulation), state of wakefulness, and euphoria
cannabiboids
A term applied to marijuana and parts of the plant Cannabis sativa in which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the active
Tetrahydricannabinol (THC)
The active ingredient in Marijuana
Polypharmacy
A mixture of drugs
volume of distribution
An equation that relates dose of a drug to blood concentration
Gas chromatography
Gas flowing through a coated tube separates compounds by their size, weight, and chemical reactivity with the coating of the cube or column
Cyanide
A highly toxic chemical, especially in the form of gas (hydorgen cyanide)
methemoglobin
An oxidized form of hemoglobin.
cyanomethemoglobin
A complex of cyanide and methemoglobin; used to treat cyanide posioning
carboxyhemoglobin
Hemoglobin in which the oxygen has been replaced by carbon monoxide (CO)
thin layer chromatography (TLC)
The use of a solvent that travels through a porous medium to separate compounds based on their chemical affinity with the solvent and the medium
mobile phase
In a chromatographic system such as thin layer chromatography or gas chromatography, the phase that moves.
carrier gas
The mobile phase in gas chromatography (GC)
GC-MS
Acronym for gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry
National Institute of High Standards and Technology (NIST)
Federal agency responsible fro setting, approving, and maintaining measurements and materials standards in the United States (formerly National Bureau of Standards)
liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)
An analytical instrument that combines a liquid chromatography with a mass spectrometer as the detect; analogous to GC-MS
thermolabile
A substance that breaks at elevated temperatures
tandem mass spectrometery
A detection system with more than one mass spectrometer in series
colorimetric testing
testing in which a change or production of color is used to screen for compounds
marsh test
first and most famous color-based test for arsenic
inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)
A form of mass spectrometry used to detect inorganic materials and metals
Toxicokinetics/ pharmacokinetics
The study of how genetic factors influence toxicology and drug effectiveness
toxicogenetics/ pharmacogenetics
The study of the genetic influences on the responses of organisms to toxins.
postmortem redistribution
The redistribution of drugs in the body that occurs after death
Controlled Substance Act (CSA)
legislation in the US that defines illegal drugs and classifies them by schedules
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
The US government agency responsible for regulation of controlled drugs
Over the counter (OTC)
Medicines that can be purchased without a prescription
cutting agents
A substance added to an illicit drug to reduce the concentration
standards
analytical standards established by a consensus of the scientific community engaged in the analysis of drugs of abuse
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
A group of that establishes national and international standard practices fr procedures and analyses
SWGDRUG
Scientific Working Group for the Analysis of Seized Drugs
Botanical examinations
Study of various plant structure, such as roots, stems, branches, leaves, fruits, or flower, that may be used to determine time and season of death as well as possible prior location of remains
macroscopic examinations
Visual examination generally performed with the unaided eye; used to identify class characteristics
cystolithic (bear-claw shaped) hairs
hairs on the surface of a leaf/ finer clothing
Duquenois-Levine
Chemical color test used to confirm the presence of cannabinoids in plant material
hashish
The resin from marijuana that has been isolated from the plant material
mescaline
A hallucinogen found in cactus buttons
alkaloids
Substance formed by in the plant tissues and in the bodies of animals. Morphine and codeine are alkaloids of opium
psilocin
a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance
psilocybin
a naturally occurring psychedelic compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms
wet chemical procedures
Procedure that involve solvents, extractions, etc.; not instruments
microcrystaline tests
A reaction between the compound of interest and chemical reagent that results in the formation of unique crystals that can be observed with the micrscope
extractions/ liquid extraction
Separation of the compound of interest from the rest of the samples
infrared spectroscopy
Use of the absorption of infrared radiation to produce a chemical fingerprint of a substances; also referred to as IR spectroscopy
clandestine drug laboratories
Illicit location that manufactures controlled substances

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