Chapter 1 Pharmacology Workbook

Dissolution of a drug
pharmaceutic

Effect of a drug action because of hereditary
pharmacogenetic

Four process of a drug movement to achieve drug action
pharmacokinetic

Drug tolerance to repeated administration of a drug
tachyphylaxis

One-Half of the drug concentration to be eliminated
half-life

Drug bound to a protein
protein binding

Effect of a drug action on cells
pharmacodynamic

Drug that blocks a response
antagonist

Toxic effect as a result of drug dose or therapy
toxicity

Located on the cell membrane to enhance drug action
receptor

Drug that produces a response
agonist

Psychologic benefit from a compound
placebo

Protein bound drug
causes inactive drug action / response

Unbound drug
free active drug causing a pharmacologic response

Hepatic first pass
proceeds directly from intestine to the liver

Dissolution
breakdown of a drug into smaller particles

Passive absorption
drug absorbed by diffusion

Which drug is most rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract?
suspension

Nonselective receptors
Drugs that affect various receptors

Usually food has what effect on drug dissolution and absorption?
interferes with

The correct sequence of the four processes of pharmocokinetics are:
1. absorption
2. distribution
3. metabolism
4. excretion

Which type of drug passes rapidly through the GI membrane?
lipid soluble and nonionized

Which factors most commonly affect a drug’s action?
poor circulation, pain, stress, hunger, fasting

A client is taking a drug that is highly protein bound. Several days later the client takes a second drug that is 90% protein bound. What happens to the first drug?
More of the first drug is released from the protein and becomes more pharmacologically active.

Which body organ is the major site of drug metabolism?
liver

What route of drug absorption has the greatest bioavailability?
intravenous

Which is the best statement of a drug’s serum half-life?
the time required after absorption for half of the drug to be eliminated

The client is taking a drug with the half-life of 24-30 hours. How often should this drug be administered to maintain the appropriate serum drug levels?
once a day

Which type of drug can be eliminated through the kidneys?
water-soluble

A client has a renal disorder. Her creatinine clearance is 40 mL/min. What should happen to her drug dosage?
it should be decreased

Which is the best determinant of the biologic activity of a drug?
the fit of the drug at the receptor site

Which type of drug prevents or inhibits a cellular response?
antagonists

A receptor located in the different parts of the body may initiate a variety of responses depending on its anatomic site. Which type of receptor responds in this manner?
nonspecific

Which indicator measures the margin of safety of a drug?
therapeutic index

A client is taking medication that requires plasma/serum drug level monitoring. To avoid drug toxicity, how often should blood levels be drawn?
at periodic intervals

The nurse has just given a client his prescribed drugs. Which measurement checks for the highest plasm/serum concentration of the drug?
peak level

Before administering a medication, the nurse should check a drug reference blood or the drug pamphlet to obtain pertinent data. Which data should be noted?
1. protein-binding effect
2. half-life
3. therapeutic range

Which type of physiologic effect is not related to the desired effects that are predictable or are associated with the use of a specific drug?
side effects

The nurse is giving a large initial dose of a drug to rapidly achieve minimum effective concentration in the plasma. What is this type of dosage called?
loading dose

At time-response curve evaluates parameters of a drug’s action. Which parameters are part of a time-response curve?
1. onset of action
2. peak of action
3. duration of action

Which nursing intervention concerning drug therapy should the nurse implement?
1. assessing for side effects of drugs, especially those that are non-selective
2. checking drug reference books for dosage ranges, side effects, protein binding percentage, and half life.
3. checking the client’s serum therapeutic range of drugs that are more toxic or have a narrow therapeutic range.

Onset
the time it takes a drug to reach minimum effective concentration

Peak action
occurs when a drug has reached it’s highest plasma concentration

Duration of action
length of time a drug has a pharmacologic effect

Therapeutic index
time it takes a drug to reach minimum effective concentration

Medications are given intramuscularly are best absorbed when given in the ?
deltoid

To avoid medication toxicity, the nurse should check the _________________________of all drugs given to a client.
protein binding percentage

The main route of a drug elimination is through the kidneys. Other areas that eliminate drugs from the body include?
feces, sweat, saliva, hepatic metabolism, lungs, bile, and breast milk.

The 4 categories of drug action are:
1. stimulation or depression
2. replacement
3. inhibition or killing of an organism
4. irritation

Pharmaceutic Phase (First Phase) The drug becomes a solution so that it can cross the biologic membrane **When drug is given subQ, IM, or IV routes there is NO pharmaceutic phase. Pharmacokinetic Phase (Second Phase) Is composed of 4 processes: …

Pharmacodynamics facts Pharmacodynamics is the science of dealing with interactions between living organisms and foreign chemicals. Each living system has chemical reactions occurring continuously in the body. When other chemicals (drugs) are added to the body other effects occur. Drug …

What does it mean that DR interactions are concentration dependent? It means that as the concentration of the drug increases the % of receptors bound increases What does it mean the DR interactions are saturable? At a certain concentration 100% …

agonists medication that binds to the receptor site and stimulates the function of that site; drug that mimics a function of the body. antagonists medication that binds at receptor sites to prevent other medication from binding to those same sites. …

True All drugs have some type of adverse effect(s) adverse effects too much of a therapeutic effect; other pharmacodynamic effects of the drug WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write …

3 phases a PO drug goes through – pharmaceutic (dissolution) – pharmacokinetic – pharmacodynamic pharmaceutic phase The drug becomes a solution so it may cross the biologic membrane. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR …

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