chap 4, Chapter 3:, chap 1, Chap 2

in addition to neurons, the brain contains an even larger number of another cell type known as
glia

which of these is not one of the four important regions found in every neuron?
glia

gated ion channels for sodium and potassium open an close in rapid succession, causing the neuron to depolarize and then return to its normal resting level, during each
action potential

cocaine selectively blocks Na channels which is the mechanism that leads to
local anesthetic effects

____ results from a loss of myelin wrapping
multiple sclerosis

parasympathetic and sympathetic refer to the 2 branches of the
autonomic nervous system

the neurotramsmitter at the end organ of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is
norepinephrine

the _____is an important link between the brains and the pituitary gland, and is involved in feeding, drinking, temp regulation, and sexual behavior
hypothalamus

neural centers controlling committing and respiration are found in the
brainstem

which chemical pathway appears to be important both in some types of psychotic behavior and in reinforcing properties of various drugs?
mesolimbic dopamine pathway

weight control, aggression, impulsivity, and psychological depression have all been associated with
serotonin pathways

natural chemicals in the brain that produce effects similar to those of morphine and other opium-derived drugs are called
endorphins

the process in which enzymes within neurons convert precursors intro neurotransmitter molecule is called
synthesis

neurotransmitter molecules are released into the small space between 2 neurons called the
synapse

specialized structures that recognize neurotransmitter molecules and, when activated, may cause a change in the electrical activity of the neuron are called
receptors

which of the following neurotransmitters is found in most parts o father brain and is considered inhibitory
GABA

whether the effect of a neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory depends on
type of receptor

drugs can affect neurotransmitter systems in 2 main ways, either by alternating the availability of the neurotransmitter in the synapse or by
acting directly on the receptors

suppose you wanted to prescribe a hypothetical drug that would have an overall excitatory effect on the nervous system. which would you choose?
GABA antagonist

the brain imaging tech that involves injection of radioactive chemicals in order to measure brain function is called
PET

in the early 1800_____ was the medical doctors most reliable and effective medicine that was used for a variety of condtions, but mainly for pain relief
opium

one concern hat led to the initial passage of federal drug control legislation in 1906
patent medicines

in the early 1900’s in the US, fears about opium and cocaine were closely linked to
minority racial groups

the 1906 US law that prohibited interstate commerce in adulterated or misbranded food and drugs was called
pure food and drugs act

the harrison act of 1914
required pharmacist and physicians to register and pay taxes on drugs

pure food and drugs act and the harrison act were originally administered by the US
agriculture and treasury

when the pure food and drugs act was first passed, drugs were legally required to be
pure and accurately labeled

Before the FDA approves an IND for human testing of a new drug
the drug has been tested in at least 2 species of nonhuman animals `

before a new drug is released to the market, the FDA requires
3 phases of clinical testing, each phase involving more people

in any given year, about ___drug compounds are studied and about ___ are approved by FDA
3000;30

the single most important legislation that has shaped the federal gov’t approach to controlled substances was
alcohol prohibition

according to the text, which of the following most accurately describes the recent drug laws in portugal
posession for personal use of all drugs is decriminalized

the comprehensive drug abuse prevention and control act of 1970
established schedules of controlled substances and moved enforcement to the justice department

substances with high abuse potential and no currently accepted medical use are listed in
schedule 1

according to current fed law, a fine up to 10000 and loss of fed aide can result from conviction
for posession of small amounts of controlled substance

according to the text, what drug use is currently at the center of a conflict between state and fed laws
marijuana for medical use

the fed, governments budget for drug control
about $25 billion

one example where the US interest in international drug control has conflicted with national security issues is
opium growing in afghansitan

an economic study of the US efforts to eradicate coca fields in south america indicated
that even if we produced massive disruption of one country’s supply, market forces would replace the supply within 2 years

it is estimated that ___ percent of illegal drug supply is seized by fed. agencies each year
10-15

methamphetamine, crack cocaine, ecstasy, and glue sniffing were given as examples of
the drug du jour

one of the general principles of psychoactive drug use is that
drugs are not good or bad

one of the general principles of psychoactive drugs is that “every drug has”
multiple effects

one of the general principles of psychoactive drug use is that “the effect of any psychoactive drug depends on _____”
the individuals history and expectations

the use of a substance in a manner, amounts, or situations such that the drug causes problems or greatly increases the chances of problems occurring is
abuse

drug use that is not common within a social group and that is disapproved of by the majority, causing members of a group to take corrective action when it occurs, is
deviant drug use

a drug that is unlawful to possess or use is defined in the text as
an illicit drug

drugs have played a significant role in human society
for thousands of years

in the past 100 years, the intro of vaccines to prevent diseases and antibiotics to cure some type of infections laid the foundation for
our acceptance of medicines as the cornerstone our health care system

much of our info about rates of drug use come from survet questionnaires. one important limitation of such questionnaires is
people might not answer honestly

despite the limitations of survey questionnaires, the can be especially informative
if they are done year after year

among college students, fewer than one-forth have ever tried
hallucinogens

based on 2 large surveys, it appears that the percentage of young people reporting current marijuana use
is about half the percentage reporting current use in the late 1970’s

when we examine changes over the years in percentage of high school seniors who say they have smoked marijuana, we find a clear inverse (mirror-image) relationship to
perceived risk of harm in using marijuana

the national survey on drug use and health revealed that current alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use

factors that are correlated with higher rates of drug use are known as
risk factors

one of the most important risk factors for drug use is
having friends who use marijuana or other substances

one of the most important protective factors for drug use is
believing that there are strong sanctions against substance abuse at school

one very consistent finding is that students who report ____ are less likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use any type of illicit drug
having more involvement with religion

according to results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which of there ethic groups reports the highest rate of use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana?

compared to young adults who finished high school only, those with college degrees
are much more likely to drink alcohol and much less likely to use tobacco

one personality variable that has been constantly associated with higher rates of substance dependence is
high impulsivity

an example of a longitudal study of drug use would be
following the same group of people at intervals over several months or years

in one study, adolescents who smoked cigarettes were about twice as likely as nonsmokers to later use marijuana. for this reason, cigarettes have been referred to as
a gateway substance

some drugs have the effect that, every time you take the drug, you increase slightly the probability that you will take it again. This process is referred to as
reinforcement

which type of factor probably plays a bigger role in determining whether a person will try a drug in the first place, as opposed to determining which of those who try it will become dependent?
Social

suppose a person is prescribed an opiod medication to treat painful injury. but after her injury heals, she takes the drug primarily to feel euphoria. based on this information alone, which term would you use to describe her drug use?
drug misuse

the US government in the 1800s had few regulations on industry and in general took a hands off approach to government that has been referred by the term
laissez-farie

the text lists 3 concerts that led to the adoption of the 1st US law regulating what we now call contolled substances. which of these was not one of the 3?
high profits for drug sellers

when using a substance makes normal activities such as driving result in harmful accidents, that is called
behavioral toxicity

acute drug effects are those that:
are caused by the immediate presence of the drug in then body

which is an example of chronic physiological toxicity?
high blood pressure from smoking

the drug abuse warning network is
monitored by drug-related medical emergencies

according to recent DAWN data, which of these substances is near the top if the emergency room visits
alcohol in combination

what is a drug recognition expert?

a 2010 analysis of drug related deaths conducted by the CDC indicated that ___is responsible for more than half of drug overdose deaths

in comparing the relative toxicity of marijuana and cocaine, it is important to take into account
that many more people use marijuana than use cocaine

DAWN data provides all of the following except

since 1990’s, HIV transmission rates among intraveneous drug users have beens reduced from about 50% to about 10%. according to the text, which of these factors led to this decrease?
syringe exchange programs

when repeated exposure to the same dose results in a lesser effect, this is called
tolerance

the occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome is evidence of
physical dependence

the drugs with which people are most likely to develop psychological behavior dependence are generally also found to have
reinforcing effects in lab animals

the DSM-V does not define addiction as such, but has diagnostic criteria for
substance abuse

as views of substance dependence have changed based on scientific research, the real driving force behind repeated excessive drug use is now believed to be
psychological dependence, based on reinforcement

which of these substance has the highest lifetime estimate of dependence
Heroin

Brian Scan studies with drug users `
changes in response to drug admin

those who are diagnosed with a personality disorder, such as antisocial personality disorder,
have an inc. likelihood of also having a substance abuse disorder

in determining whether using a drug causes people to become criminals, it is important to remember that
longitudinal studies find that indicators of criminal/ antisocial behavior usually occur before the first use of any illicit drug

which of the following drugs has clearly linked to crimes and violence
alcohol

in an annual study done by the justice department, people arrested for various crimes are given urine tests to detect the presence of drugs. in 2012, about ____percent of the adult male arrestees tested positive for at least one illicit drug
60-80

about how many arrests are made in the US each year for drug law violations
1.5 mil

rank the following drugs according to the number in 2009 DAWN emergency department dataset (high to low)

The data suggest that marijuana use increases the likelihood of a person committing a violent crime. (p42)
False

To receive diagnosis of substance use disorder an individual must satisfy at least 2 diagnostic criteria, one which has to be a symptom of physical dependence (tolerance or withdrawal). (p37)
False, 3 of the 7 must be met

Physical dependence is often defined by the appearance of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is stopped. (p33)
true

(p. 26-27) Chronic drug effects refer to those that are due to prolonged exposure to the drug.
True

(p. 62) The Marijuana Tax Act was passed in
1937

p. 66) Precursors refers to substances like pseudoephedrine that can be chemically altered to make a controlled substance.
True

(p. 64) A drug that does have an approved medical use but has a high potential for abuse would be listed on Schedule II.
True

(p.86) Parkinson’s disease produces tremors and muscular rigidity because of damage to
dopamine neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway.

Unlike neurons, glial cells in the brain are purely for support and are incapable of communicating with each other.
False

(p. 80) In the neuron, neurotransmitters are stored in the myelin sheaths.
False they are in vesicles

(p. 84) Newer local anesthetics are simple modifications of the cocaine molecule that do not pass the blood-brain barrier and thus do not produce cocaine-like feelings of euphoria.
True

(p. 85) Parkinson’s disease patients are often treated with dopamine because L-dopa cannot cross the blood-brain barrier.
False its the other way around

The perspective that symptoms of a mental disorder lead to a diagnosis that illuminates both the underlying cause and a cure for the disorder is referred to in the text as A. medical model B. double-blind design C. logical approach …

the use of cocaine by members of the general public in europe was initially in the form of drinks, such as coca wine Dr. W.S Halsted the father of american surgery, experimented with cocaine’s ability to produce local anesthesia WE …

According to a study carried out in the Maritime Provinces, marijuana, stimulants, mescaline and amphetamines were the most commonly abused drugs used by the teenagers in the North America particularly in distinct parts of Canada. In addition, number of cases …

However, these factors are only vital in the initial stages of drug use. These factors take on less significance as drug addiction sets in (Addiction Science Network, 2000). With continued drug use, a person is exposed to “potent pharmacological effects” …

the use of cocaine by members of the general public in europe was initially in the form of drinks, such as coca wine Dr. W.S Halsted the father of american surgery, experimented with cocaine’s ability to produce local anesthesia WE …

in addition to neurons, the brain contains an even larger number of another cell type known as glia which of these is not one of the four important regions found in every neuron? glia WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

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