Chap 34

What was FDR’s “Brain Trust”
The Brains Trust, a term coined by James Kieran, a New York Times reporter, refers to the group of academic advisers that FDR gathered to assist him during the 1932 presidential campaign.

Why did African-Americans vote heavily for FDR in 1932
was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs in the United States that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 1960s.

Describe Hoover’s lame duck period (after election, before leaving office)
an elected official who is approaching the end of their tenure, especially one whose successor has already been elected

How did FDR address Prohibition
was accomplished with the passage of the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution on December 5, 1933

What was the purpose of the bank holiday
According to William L. Silber “The Emergency Banking Act of 1933, passed by Congress on March 9, 1933, three days after FDR declared a nationwide bank holiday, combined with the Federal Reserve’s commitment to supply unlimited amounts of currency to reopened banks, created de facto 100 percent deposit insurance.

Describe the Hundred Days
was a time in the history of the United States in which Roosevelt planned to put an end to the Great Depression that was thought to have been caused by former President Herbert Hoover.

What were FDR’s fireside chats
One secret to Roosevelt’s success was his “fireside chats,” thirty speeches he gave over the radio (and later TV) during his presidency.

Describe the Emergency Bank Relief Act
was an act passed by the United States Congress in 1933 in an attempt to stabilize the banking system

Describe the Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
usually refers to four provisions of the U.S. Banking Act of 1933 that limited commercial bank securities, activities, and affiliations within commercial banks and securities firms.

Why did FDR confiscate all private holdings of gold
a United States presidential executive order signed on April 5, 1933, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt “forbidding the Hoarding of gold coin, gold bullion, and gold certificates within the continental United States”.

Why did FDR raise the official price of gold to $35 per ounce
This price change incentivized foreign investors to export their gold to the United States, while simultaneously devaluing the U.S. dollar in an attempt to spark inflation.

Describe the Civilian Conservation Corps
a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families as part of the New Deal.

Describe the Federal Emergency Relief Administration
new name given by the Roosevelt Administration to the Emergency Relief Administration (ERA) which President Herbert Hoover had created in 1932.

Describe the Agricultural Adjustment Administration
a United States federal law of the New Deal era which reduced agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant on part of their land and to kill off excess livestock.

Describe the Homeowner’s Loan Corporation
a government-sponsored corporation created as part of the New Deal.

Describe the Civil Works Administration
a short-lived U.S. job creation program established by the New Deal during the Great Depression to rapidly create manual labor jobs for millions of unemployed workers.

Describe the Works Progress Administration
the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads

Describe the National Recovery Administration
a prime New Deal agency established by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in 1933.

Describe the Public Works Administration
a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes.

What was the biggest complaint about the Agricultural Adjustment Administration
The biggest complaint was the lack of men to guard the defensive line.

Describe the conditions that led to the Dust Bowl
a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the US and Canadian prairies during the 1930s

Describe the migration that resulted from the Dust Bowl
a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes) caused the phenomenon.

Describe the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
The Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934, or the Wheeler-Howard Act, was U.S. federal legislation that dealt with the status of Native Americans (known in law as American Indians or Indians).

Describe the Securities and Exchange Commission
an agency of the United States federal government.

Describe the Tennessee Valley Authority
federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression

Describe the Federal Housing Administration
a United States government agency created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934.

Describe the Social Security Act of 1935
An act to provide for the general welfare by establishing a system of Federal old-age benefits.

Describe the Supreme Court’s decision in Schechter v. United States (“sick chicken” case)
a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated regulations of the poultry industry according to the nondelegation doctrine and as an invalid use of Congress’ power under the commerce clause

Explain Father Charles Coughlin’s proposals
a controversial Canadian Roman Catholic priest based in the United States near Detroit at Royal Oak, Michigan’s National Shrine of the Little Flower church.

Explain Huey Long’s proposals
his “Share Our Wealth” plan (also known as Huey Long’s “Share the Wealth” plan), a program designed to provide a decent standard of living to all Americans by spreading the nation’s wealth among the people.

Explain Dr. Francis Townsend’s proposals
an American physician who was best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression

What were some liberal criticisms of FDR’s New Deal
Critics have questioned not only his policies and positions but also charged him with centralizing power in his own hands by controlling both the government and the Democratic party

What were some conservative criticisms of FDR’s New Deal
Many denounced his breaking the no-third-term tradition in 1940. His wife Eleanor Roosevelt and their children came under attack—and so too did his dog Fala

Describe the National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act of 1935
1. Congress- bicameral 1. HOR (435) 2. Senate (100) 2. Makes laws 3. approves budget 3. approves budget 4. confirms presidential appointments 5. raises revenue 6. regulates trade 7. declares war

What unions did John L. Lewis lead and form
was an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW) from 1920 to 1960.

What was the CIO’s “resounding victory”
they were finally recognized by general motors

Describe the Fair Labor Standards Act
The FLSA introduced the forty-hour work week, established a national minimum wage, guaranteed “time-and-a-half” for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in “oppressive child labor”, a term that is defined in the statute.

Based on the chart on p. 797, how much did union membership increase from 1930 to 1940
the amount of members increased by $2 million

Describe FDR’s political coalition in 1936 (i.e., who voted for him)
Franklin D. Roosevelt forged a coalition that included banking and oil industries, the Democratic state party organizations, city machines, labor unions, blue collar workers, minorities (racial, ethnic and religious), farmers, white Southerners, people on relief, and intellectuals

Describe FDR’s court-packing plan and why it failed
a legislative initiative proposed by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt to add more justices to the U.S. Supreme Court.

In what sense was the court-packing plan successful
central provision of the bill would have granted the President power to appoint an additional Justice to the U.S. Supreme Court, up to a maximum of six, for every member of the court over the age of 70 years and 6 months.

Based on the chart on page 800, describe the trends in unemployment from 1929 to 1942
It rose at an almost steady rate then fell

Describe the “Roosevelt Recession” of 1937-1938
an economic downturn that occurred during the Great Depression in the United States.

What was Keynesianism
An economic theory of total spending in the economy and its effects on output and inflation.

Describe the Hatch Act
a United States federal law whose main provision prohibits employees in the executive branch of the federal government, except the president, vice-president, and certain designated high-level officials of that branch, from engaging in some forms of political activity.

CCC Civilian Conservation Corps. It was a Relief Program that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc. TVA The Tennessee Valley Authority federation was created in 1933 in order to build Hydro …

Great Depression the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s. Stock Market Crash Spark of the Great …

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Democratic president who created the New Deal to counter the effects of the Great Depression New Deal A collection of multiple programs started to end the Great Depression passed by Franklin Roosevelt; some of these programs included …

Causes of the Great Depression 1. tariffs and war debt policies that cut down the foreign market for American goods. 2. Stock market speculation 3. Bank Failures 4. Fed. Reserve raised interest rates to banks to curb stock market. Effects …

Franklin D Roosevelt He beat Herbert Hoover in the general election and became the 32nd President of the United States. He was a democrat and cousin to previous president Theodore Roosevelt. Eleanor Roosevelt She was the niece of Theodore Roosevelt. …

3 Acts of Hoover Emergency Relief and Construction Act, Agricultural Marketing Act, Reconstruction Finance Corporation Emergency Relief and Construction Act 1932. “Purchasing on the margin”= borrowing. Large public works projects funded (Hoover dam). It was a way for the federal …

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