CH15 Med Term

aden/o
gland

adren/o
adrenal gland

crin/o
to secrete

gonad/o
sex gland

hormon/o
to set in motion

pancreat/o
sweetbread, pancreas

ren/o
kidney

thyr/o
shield, thyroid

thyroid/o
resembling a shield, thyroid

Components of endocrine system
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreatic islets, gonads

hypersecretion
abnormally high hormone production

hyposecretion
abnormally low hormone secretion

acid/o
solution or substance with a pH less than 7

acr/o
extremity

dips/o
thirst

hirsut/o
hairy

ket/o
ketone

acidosis
sign of excess acid in the body; occurs when carbon dioxide accumulates in tissues to form carbonic acid

acromegaly
enlargement of bone structure; sign of hypersecretion of growth hormone; “abnormally large extremity”

exophthalmos
abnormal protrusion of the eyes; classic symptom of excessive activity of the thyroid gland, literally means “outside eyes”

goiter
symptom of thyroid gland disease is a swelling on the anterior side of the neck in the location of thyroid gland; an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland

hirsutism
symptom of excessive body hair in a masculine pattern

ketosis
excessive amount of ketone bodies in the blood and urine and is a symptom of unmanaged diabetes mellitus and starvation

ketoacidosis
ketosis produces and acidic condition of the body

adrenal virilism
pattern of masculinization in women associated with hirsutism

polydipsia
“condition of excessive thirst”; abnormal state of excessive thirst occurs during certain disorders of the pituitary gland or pancreas

polyuria
symptom of pituitary gland disease that arises when the hormone ADH is not produced normally; is the production of abnormally large volumes of urine

adren/o
adrenal gland

calc/i, calc/o
calcium

carcin/o
cancer

crin/o
to secrete

glyc/o
sweet, sugar

gonad/o
sex gland

muc/o
mucus

pancreat/o
sweetbread, pancreas

thyr/o
shield, thyroid

thyroid/o
resembling a shield, thyroid

adenitis
general term for an inflammation of a gland

adenopathy
general term for glandular disease

adenocarcinoma
malignant tumor that arises form epithelial tissue to form a glandular or glandlike pattern of cells

adenoma
adenocarcinoma develops from a benign tumor of glandular cells; may cause excess secretion by the affected gland

adrenalitis
inflammation of the adrenal gland

adrenomegaly
one or both of the adrenal glands becomes enlarged

adrenopathy
disease of adrenal glands

cretinism
child suffering from the thyroid gland’s inability to produce normal levels of growth hormone at birth may develop this disorder; this disorder may lead to reduced mental development and physical growth

cushing syndrome
syndrome that is caused by excessive secretion of the hormone cortisol by the adrenal cortex, which affects many organs; characterized by obesity, moon face, hyperglycemia, and muscle weakness

diabetes insipidus
DI; caused by hyposecretion of ADH by pituitary gland; characterized by symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia

diabetes mellitus
chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism; DM; result of resistance of body cells to insulin, or deficiency or lack of insulin production by cells of the pancreas; Type 1 and Type 2

diabetic retinopathy
damage to the eyes that leads to blindness; caused by diabetes mellitus if unmanaged

diabetic nephropathy
circulatory deficiencies that result in cerebrovascular disease leading to hear failure, kidney damage; caused by diabetes mellitus if unmanaged

endocrinopathy
general term for disease of endocrine system

hyperadrenalism
excessive activity of one or more adrenal glands; in time, this disease produces symptoms that characterize cushing syndrome

hypoadrenalism
adrenal activity is abnormally reduced; may lead to chronic form called Addison disease

addison disease
chronic form of hypoadrenalism

hypercalcemia
calcium levels in blood are abnormally high; result of release of calcium from bones, which leads to softening of the bones if left untreated; caused by excessive activity of the parathyroid glands

hypocalcemia
condition of abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood (hypo); caused by abnormally low activity of parathyroid glands, which produce insufficient PTH

calcipenia
condition of abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood (penia); caused by abnormally low activity of parathyroid glands, which produce insufficient PTH

hyperglycemia
“condition of blood excessive sugar”; chronic form often indicates the body may not be producing enough insulin or insulin receptor sites are resistant, may lead to Type 2 diabetes mellitus

hypoglycemia
blood sugar levels fall to abnormally low levels; caused by excessive insulin administration or excessive production by the pancreas

hypoparathyroidism
PTH levels are reduced

hyperparathyroidism
excessive production of PTH by parathyroid glands; results in excessive calcium levels in blood

hyperthyroidism
excessive activity of the thyroid gland produces abnormally high levels of thyroid hormone , which accelerates metabolism; symptoms = goiter, weight loss, rapid hear rate, exophthalmos

graves disease
form of chronic hyperthyroidism; autoimmune disease

thyrotoxicosis
acute event that is triggered by infection or trauma and can be life threatening; form of chronic hyperthyroidism

hypothyroidism
thyroid gland activity becomes deficient, thyroid hormone blood levels drop below normal; symptom = low energy, weight gain, slow heart rate, dry skin

myxedema
chronic form of hypothyroidism; subcutaneous layer beneath the skin becomes thick and hard, and the body retains water, aging skin prematurely while puffing the face and thickening the tongue and hangs; “swollen mucus”

hypogonadism
abnormally low amounts of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are produced by pituitary, which reduces production of sex hormones; results in reduced sexual interest and reproductive capacity

pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas; results in deficient production of insulin (leads to hyperglycemia)

pituitary gigantism
abnormally high production of pituitary growth hormone before adolescence

acromegaly
abnormally high production of pituitary growth hormone after adolescence

pituitary dwarfism
pituitary growth hormone is deficient at birth, resulting in short stature

thyroiditis
inflammation of the thyroid gland

adrenalectomy
surgical excision of one or both of the adrenal glands

endocrinologist
physician specializing in the field of endocrinology

fasting blood sugar
FBS; blood sugar levels are measure after a 12-hour fast

postprandial blood sugar exam
PPBS; blood sugar levels are measured about 2 hours after a meal

glucose tolerance test
test that may be used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus examines the patient’s tolerance to glucose; GTT; patient given glucose orally or intravenously, at timed intervals blood samples are taken and glucose levels are measured.

hormone replacement therapy
common therapy to counteract hypo secretion; HRT; synthetic hormones or extracted hormones are used; may also be used following the surgical removal of an endocrine gland to restore homeostasis

parathyroidectomy
surgical removal of a parathyroid gland

radioactive iodine uptake
diagnostic procedure used to track and measure iodines entry into thyroid gland cells with a scanning instrument; RAIU

radioiodine therapy
radioactive iodine targets cells within the thyroid gland and destroys them

thyroid scan
procedure measuring thyroid function, during which an image of the thyroid gland is obtained; usually employed to detect thyroidoma

thyroidoma
thyroid tumor

thyroidectomy
removal of the thyroid gland

thyroidotomy
procedure in which the thyroid gland is surgically entered

thyroparathyroidectomy
procedure in which the parathyroid glands are removed with the thyroid glands

thyroxine test
diagnostic test that measures thyroxine levels in the blood; used to test for hyper and hypothyroidism

thyroxine
hormone produced by thyroid gland; regulates glucose metabolism and cell division in most cells of the body

antidiuretic hormone
ADH

diabetes insipidus
DI

diabetes mellitus
DM

fasting blood sugar
FBS

follicle-stimulating hormone
FSH

growth hormone
GH

glucose tolerance test
GTT

hormone replacement therapy
HRT

luteinizing hormone
LH

postprandial blood sugar
PPBS

parathyroid hormone
PTH

radioactive iodine uptake
RAIU

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