Ch 51 principles of pharmacology

Toxicology
The study of poisons or poisonous effects of drugs

Dispense
Distribute a drug to a pt who is to use it

Pharmaco dynamics
The study of what drugs do to the body

E-prescribing
A rx that is entered electronically and transmitted directly to a pharmacy

Indication
The purpose or reason for using a drug

Administer
To give a drug by any route that introduces the drug into a patients body

Labeling
A statement of the forms of a drug and it’s approved indications

Efficacy
Therapeutic value of a drug

Opioid
Produces opium-like effects

Trade name
A drugs brand or proprietary name

Controlled substance
A drug that is categorized as potentially dangerous or addictive

Generic name
A drugs official name

Magnetic therapy
Use of magnets of various shapes and sizes to relieve pain or treat disease

Pharmacology
The science or study of drugs

Package insert
Description of a drug, it’s purpose and effects, indications, contraindications, warnings, precautions, adverse reactions, and other information

Pharmaco kinetics
Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Study of what the body does to drugs.

Pharmaco therapeutics
Clinical pharmacology. Study of how drugs are used to treat disease

Pharmacognosy
Study of the characteristics of natural drugs and their sources

Prescribe
The act of ordering a drug for a pt from a pharmacy

Narcotic
Government term for opioid

Distribution
Process of transporting drug from administration site to site of action

Palliative drug therapy
Drug is prescribed to reduce severity of a condition or accompanying pain (morphine for cancer)

Acute therapy
Drug prescribed to improve life-threatening or serious condition (epinephrine for allergic reaction)

Empiric therapy
Drug prescribed according to experience or observation until blood or other tests prove another therapy to be appropriate (pcn for suspected strep)

Maintenance therapy
Drug prescribed to maintain condition of health, esp in chronic disease (anti-inflammatory for ibd)

Prophylactic therapy
Drug prescribed to prevent disease or condition (immunizations or bc drugs)

Replacement therapy
Drug prescribed to provide chemicals otherwise missing in pt (hormone replacement for menopause)

Supportive therapy
Drug prescribed for condition other than primary disease until disease resolves (corticosteroids for allergic reaction)

Supplemental therapy
Drug or nutrients prescribed to avoid deficiency (iron for pregnant woman)

Metabolism
Drug molecules transformed into simpler products called metabolites. Occurs in liver or kidneys.

Excretion
Manner in which a drug is eliminated from the body. Mostly in urine. Can be through feces, perspiration, saliva, bile, exhaled air, breast milk

Schedule I
High abuse. No RX. GHB, heroin, LSD, mescaline

Schedule II
High abuse. Accepted medical use. Opioids

Schedule III
Lower abuse than I & II accepted medical use. 5 rf in 6 mo. Anabolic steroids, analgesics, barbiturate, antidiarrheal

Schedule IV
Lower abuse than III. Benzodiazepines

Schedule V
Lower abuse than IV 5 rf in 6 mo. Antitussive and antidiarrheal that combine small amounts of Opioids.

Physicians desk reference (PDR)
•published annually
•info for more than 2500 rx drugs
•5 sections

United States pharmacopeia/ national formulary (USP-NF)
•official source of drug standards in the us
•published every 5 years
•sets authority for rx drugs, otc drugs, dietary supplements, other products
•every drug must meet USP-NF standards.

American hospital formulary service (AHFS)
•2 volume set
•provides 4-6 supplements each year
•lists generic names divided into sections based on drug actions
•also available online

Comprehensive Drug abuse prevention and control act
•controlled substances act
•created by DEA
•designates 5 schedules based on degree of potential abuse

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