ice sheet (continental glacier)
largest type of glacier

ephemeral stream
type of stream that carries water only in response to a specific episode of rainfall

glacial drift
all-embracing term for sediments of glacial origin, no matter how, where, or in what form they were deposited

drumlin
streamlined asymmetrical hill composed of till

Pleistocene epoch
most of the major glacial episodes occurred during this time period

glacial striations
long scratches and grooves made by the embedded material in a glacier as it moves along

interior drainage
arid regions typically lack permanent streams and are often characterized by this type of drainage

medial moraines
type of moraine that forms when two valley glaciers coalesce to form a single ice stream

zone of wastage
area where there is a net loss to a glacier due to melting

glacial trough
U-shaped valley produced by the erosion of a valley glacier

cirque
hollowed-out, bowl-shaped depression at the head of a valley produced by glacial erosion

barchan dune
a sand dune shaped like a crescent with its tips pointing down wind

zone of accumulation
part of a glacier where snow accumulates and ice forms

alluvial fan
cone of debris often deposited when a stream emerges from a canyon and quickly loses velocity

longitudinal dune
a long ridge of sand that forms more or less parallel to the prevailing win direction

loess
deposits of windblown silt

till
materials deposited directly by glacial ice (unsorted)

outwash plain
a broad ramplike surface of stratified drift that is built adjacent tot he downstream edge of an ice sheet

blowout
deflation by wind often forms this shallow depression

cross beds
term applied tot he sloping layers of sand that compose a dune

glacier
thick mass of ice that forms over land from the accumulation, compaction, and recrystallization of snow

piedmont glacier
a glacier that occupies the broad lowland at the base of a steep mountain

plucking
when a glacier flows over a fractured bedrock surface, it loosens and lifts blocks of rock and incorporates them into ice

abrasion
grinding and scraping of a rock surface by the friction and impact of rock particles carried by water, wind, and ice producing frock flour

plate tectonics and variations in Earth’s orbit
two hypotheses relating to the possible causes of glacial periods

drumlins and moraines
composed of till

eskers and kames
composed of stratified drift

ground moraine
gently rolling layer of till deposited as the ice front recedes

end moraine
ridge of till that forms at the terminus of the glacier

evidence of glacial drift and terminal moraines
evidence that suggests that there were several glacial advances during the Ice Age

water is stronger that win and wind is not confined to channels
two ways that the transport of sediment by wind differs from that by running water

calving
the process in which icebergs are produced when large pieces of ice break off from the front of a glacier

crevasses
crack that form in the zone of fracture of a glacier

China
where the thickest and most extensive loess deposits occur

erratic
boulders found in glacial till or lying free on the surface

blowouts
shallow depression that are a result of deflation

10%
how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by glaciers

snow line
lower limit of perrenial snow

rock flour
ground-up rock produced by the grinding rock particles effect of a glacier

hanging valley
tributary valley that enters a glacial trough at a considerable height above its floor

arete
a narrow knifelike ridge separating two adjacent glaciated valleys

horn
pyramid-like peak formed by 3 or more cirques surrounding a mountain summit

tarn
small lake in a cirque

cirque
amphitheater-like, round basin at the head of a glaciated valley produced by frost wedging and plucking

truncated spurs
triangle shaped cliffs eroded from a glacial valley

glacial trough
a mountain valley deepened, widened, and straightened by a glacier

kettle lake
depression created when blocks of ice became lodged in glacial deposited then melted

esker
sinuous ridge composed largely of sand and gravel deposited by a stream flowing in a tunnel beneath a glacier near its terminus

kame
steep-sided hill composed of sand and gravel originating when sediment is collected in openings in stagnant glacial ice

fjord glacier
valley glacier in which the base lies below sea level; glacial troughs that have become deep, steep-sided inlets of the sea

ablation
general term for loss of ice or snow from a glacier

Peter Noster lakes
a series of lakes connected by a steam found in a glacial valley

terminal end moraine
debris (till) pushed along in front of the glacier

recessional end moraine
second to last debris pile that is pushing along in front of the glacier

lateral moraine
debris (till) deposited along the sides [from valley walls]

ground moraine
debris (till) accumulated under the glacier

medial moraine
a ridge of debris (till) formed from the joining of two lateral moraines

beaches, plowed fields, deserts
three places where wind erosion are most common

saltation
wind causes the bouncing motion of particles

deflation
the process of lowering the landscape

desert pavement
big pieces of sediment are present without smaller pieces

haboob
another word for a dust storm

ventifacts
pebbles shaped and polished from wind

loess
deposits of windblown silt, extremely fertile, thin soil

Glacial till and deserts
primary sources of loess

upper Mississippi valley, Columbian Plateau, central China, and eastern Europe
places loess is found in globally

grain crops
loess is particularly good for this

dunes
mounds and ridges of and formed from the wind’s bedload

gentle slope, slip face (leeward slope), cross bed
features of a dune

cross bed
sloping layers of sand

variations in wind, amount of sand, and vegetation
factors that determine the type of dune

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