Ch 33 Pharmacology and Preparation for Drug Administration

Opium and castor oil have been used since what year?
1600 B. C.

Insulin was discovered by Banting in what year?
1922

Sulfanilamide was introduced in what year?
1937

Penicillian was first used on a patient when?
1942

To prepare for medication administration, the nurse needs to be able to do what 4 things?
1) be able to locate the info about each drug, 2) consistently calculate drug dosages accurately, 3) devise a method for using the Five Rights and five “rules” of medication afminisration consistently, 4) recognize the nursing implications for each drug administered.

Nursing implications
points you need to remember about the drug or teach the patient

drug interactions
one drug modifies the action of another

generic name
name not protected by trademark

trade name
name protected by a trademark

Classifications of drugs may be defined by the effect on a body system What are the 3 groups?
anticonvulsants, antihypertensives, analgesics.

Aspirin may be classified into 4 different groups that are
antipureic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anticlotting effects.

What is the nurses guide to safe and effective medication administration?
It is extremely important to learn the general characteristics of each drug classification and the nursing implications.

The Pure Food and Drug act of 1906 is a federal statute concerned with what?
the first federal statute regulating drug use standards for qualiy, purity, packaging, safety, labeling and dose form.

The federal Food , Drug, Cosmetic Act of 1938 is concerned with what?
labeling

The comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 regulates what?
regulates the dispensing and handling of all controlled substances.

Major drug categories by generic name endings we need to remember are?
-prils, -olols or -lols, and -pines.

Schedule I drugs are
drugs with no accepted medical use, a high potential for abuse, and lacking safety measures.

Schedule II drugs are
drugs with a medical use, a high potential for abuse, and severe psychological or physical dependence.

Schedule III drugs are
medically useful but with less potential for abuse that lead to moderate or low physical and high psychological dependance.

Schedule IV drugs are
medically useful, but with less potential for abuse than Schedule III drugs.

Schedule V drugs are
Drugs with medical use, low potential for abuse, producing less dependance than Schedule IV.

Nurses must account for and are responsible on the floor for what concerning drugs?
the security of these medications and must account for each dose that is used.

Pharmacokinetics
The study of how drugs enter the body and reach their site of action, and how they are metabolized and excreted.

Differences in absorption by route are
skin(slow absorption), mucus membranes(quick absorption), respiratory(quick absorption), oral(slow absorption),intramuscular(aqueous-quicker than oil, which slows absorption), subcutaneous(slow absorption), and intravenous(most rapid absorption)

Who prescribes drugs?
Drs., dentist, osteopaths, vets, Ph assistants, nurse praticitioners, and advanced practice.

Most drugs cross the placental barrier and affect the fetus.What drugs may be given
tylenol…

If the patient is taking two drugs that are protein bound what might happen?
one or the other drug may have a higher concentration in the unbound state than it would if it had been given alone.

degrade
break down

When there is a decrease in function from disease or aging how might a drug react in the body?
a drug may be eliminated more slowly that usual, resulting in an accumulation ot the drug that could lead to toxic levels

Adequate fluid intake is what when administering drugs?
50mL/kg/day
(50 millileters per kilogram of body weight a day)

pharmacodynamics
the study of a drug’s effect on cellular physiology and biochemistry and its mechanism of action

side effects
unintended actions

adverse effects
very undesirable effects

peak action
the highest blood or plasma concentration of the drug is achieved.The length of time the drug exerts a pharmacologic effect is the duration of action.

half-life
the time it takes for excertion to lower the drug concentration by half

What may happen if drugs are given too close together?
the peak may be exceeded and causing a toxic concentration of the drug in the body.

When giving sequential doses of a drug what is important to remember?
to time doses so that the concentraqtion level of the drug in the blood never dros below the minimum level

agonists
drugs that produce a response

antagonist
drugs that block a response

Knowing how a drugs works will allow you to figure out what?
to figure out what its side effects will be

What are the four types of drug action?
stimulation ot depression, replacement,inhibition or killing of organisms, irritation

anaphylaxis
severe allergic reaction

therapeutic range
the range of levels of the drug in the blood that will produce the desired effect

The possiblilty of adverse drug effects, side effects, allergic reactions, and undesirable interaction with other drugs and foods increases with what?
the number of drugs administered

Toxic effects
harmful effects

synergistic effects
combined interaction

Alcohol has a synergistec effect when combined with any drug that depresses the central nervous system because why?
it is also a CNS depressant.

The nurse is responsible for knowing the incompatibilities of drugs and food and info can be found where?
consulting the drug handbooks, pharmacology books, professional journals, or the drug package insert, or caheck with the pharmacist.

When receiving a drug order for the patient what must the nurse do?
the nurse must analaze ther order and determine if the drug, dose, and timing of the drug are appropriate for the patient.

oral routes
oral(PO), sublingual, buccal

parenteral routes
interdermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular(IM), intravenous(IV), epidural, intathecal.

skin administration of drugs are
topical, transdermal

mucous mambranes
vaginal, rectal, inhalation

Considerations for the elderly concerning medications are
drug interactions, adverse reactions, gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia, pill organizer, orthostatic hypotension,when taking diureics the paient is susceptible to gout, digoxin toxicity,purchase of needed meds, have them sip water, ansd approx one hird of elderly patients are noncompliant.

What aare the tyoes of orders for meds?
a standing order, PRN, one-time dose(single), and stat.

unit dose
refers to drugs packaged in single, individual doses.

noncompliance
not taking drugs when prescribed by the Dr. or pharmacy.

Medication reconciliation
is a process of identifying all the patient’s meds and communicating this info to the patient and staff.

contrindications
reasons not to administer

If giving drugs that affects vital signs what must you do?
know the vital sign readings prior to administration

When must you ask about allergies, concerning giving meds?
every time

medication administration record(MAR)
sheet listing meds prescribed and times to be given

How many times must you check med orders to prevent errors?
3 times

What are the five rights?
the right drug
the right dose
the right route
the right time
the right patient

What are five more rules concerning the five rights?
teach the patient about the drugs, take a complete drug history, assess the patient for drug allergies, be aware of potential drug interactions with other drugs or foods, document each drug you administer after giving it.

When woukd you withhold meds from a patient?
NPO,, surgery, tests, hold breakfast order, and dialysis patients.

gloves must be worn for administration for what type of administration?
injections

What needs to be documented concerning meds?
drug given, dose, time, route, your initials on MAR.with
a PRN also include the reason med was given,and always check the reaction and document result.

1. Describe the linguistic origin/etiology of the following words * Pharmacology: The study of drugs and the interactions with living tissue. * Origin of Pharmacology: Greek word pharmakon meaning medicine or drug * Drug: Any nonfood chemical substance that affect …

Adverse effects General term for undesirable and potentially harmful drug effect Agonist Drug that binds to a receptor and activates a physiological response or drug action WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

medications may be classified in two major ways: therapeutic classification and pharmacologic classification therapeutic classification organized by therapeutic usefulness. what a drug does clinically. example drugs taken to lower blood pressure, treat heart failure, or alleviate pain. examples: anticoagulants, influencing …

Name the six routes of drug administration topical oral parenteral rectal inhalation transdermal Topical for skin or mucous membranes – local reaction cream, ointment, eye, ear or nose drops WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

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What is pharmacology? study of drugs What is a dose? exact amount of drug that is administered in order to achieve the desired effect WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE …

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