Ch.33 APUSH (Great Depression and the New Deal)

Hundred Days
Period in which the Congress an inconceivable large amount of legislation

Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
Act that provided for the FDIC (1933)

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Corporation that insured individual deposits of up to $5000 (At the time)

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
New Deal Program set up to help put the unemployed back to work and to help the environment – built bridges, planted trees, etc. Helped about 3 million people (1939)

National Recovery Administration (NRA)
1933. First attempt to achieve economic advance through planning and cooperation among labor, business and government. Codes and regulations to control production, labor relations, and trade among businesses. Declared unconstitutional in 1935. Recovery and also Reform.

Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
Created in 1933 as part of FDR’s New Deal. The AAA controlled the production and prices of crops by offering subsidies to farmers who stayed under set quotas. The Supreme Court declared the AAA unconstitutional in 1936. (“Artificial Scarcity”)

Dust Bowl
Western Kansas and Oklahoma, Northern Texas, and Eastern Colorado and New Mexico; long periods of drought and destructive farming methods ruined farming in the region

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
June 1933. Innovative attempt at regional planning. Series of dams in seven states on the Tennessee river to control floods, ease navigation, and produce electricity. Endures to this day. Relief and Reform

Social Security Act of 1935
The greatest victory for New Dealers; created pension and insurance for the old-aged, the blind, the physically handicapped, delinquent children, and other dependents by taxing employees and employers

Wagner Act
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.

Fair Labor Standards Act
June 25, 1938- United States federal law that applies to employees engaged in and producing goods for interstate commerce. Established a national minimum wage, guaranteed time and a half for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in “oppressive child labor,” a term defined in the statute. Administered by the Wage & Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor.

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
Created by John L. Lewis for unskilled labor, organized “sit-down strike” against GM to work for recognition, Group which emerged from the American Federation of Labor in 1938 which became and influential labor group.

Court-Packing Plan
President FDR’s failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of US Supreme Court Justices from 9 to 15 in order to save his 2nd New Deal programs from constitutional challenges

Keynesianism
The belief the government must manage the economy by spending more money when in a recession and cutting spending when there is inflation

Relief, Recovery, and Reform
FDR’s Three R’s; Main goal of the New Deal

Emergency Banking Relief Act
Gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened (1933)

“Fireside Chats”
The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Made available many millions of dollars to help farmers meet their mortgages

Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC)
Provided government loans to homeowners who faced foreclosure because they could not make their loan payments

Civil Works Administration (CWA)
1st New Deal agency created by FDR to reduce unemployment during the cold winter months of 1933; it spent $1 billion on short-term projects for unemployed manual laborers but was abolished in the spring of ’34

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
Helped states to provide aid for the unemployed.

Father Charles Coughlin
A critic of the New Deal; created the National Union for Social Justice; wanted a monetary inflation and the nationalization of the banking system

Huey P. Long
A presidential candidate in the 1936 election known for his Share the Wealth program. He and other demagogues pushed FDR to move the New Deal to help people directly.

Works Progress Administration (WPA)
New Deal program that employed men and women to build hospitals, schools, parks, and airports; employed artists, writers, and musicians as well (Government Payroll; 1935)

Frances Perkins
Secretary of Labor; was the first female cabinet member

Mary McLeod Bethune
Headed the Office of Minority Affairs in the NYA, the “Black Cabinet”, and founded a Florida college.

Ruth Benedict
Anthropologist that helped develop the “culture and personality movement” and her student Margaret Mead reached even greater heights with Coming of Age in Samoa

Public Works Administration (PWA)
Headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery by spending over $4 billion on some 34,000 projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways (i.e. the Grand Coulee Dam of the Columbia River).

21st Amendment
Repealed Prohibition

3.2 Act
Legalize light wine and beer with an alcoholic content of 3.2% or less and also levied a $5 tax on every barrel manufactured.

Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
Allowed the government to pay farmers to reduce production so as to “conserve soil”, prevent erosion, and accomplish other minor goals. 1936 – The second AAA appropriated funds for soil conservation payments to farmers who would remove land from production.

Second Agricultural Adjustment Act
Same as the first AAA but funded from general taxation, and therefore acceptable to the Supreme Court. The Act created the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, to oversee the distribution of the subsidies to alleviate the problems with farms out west. (1938)

Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act
A relief effort which provided mortgage foreclosures for 5 years. It was later denied by the Supreme Court (1934)

Resettlement Administration
Administration that helps move farmers away from Dust Bowl stricken areas

John Collier
Commissioner of Indian Affairs; sought to reverse the forced-assimilation policies in place since the Dawes Act of 1887; He promoted the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934

Indian Reorganization Act
Encouraged tribes to preserve their culture and traditions. (1934)

Federal Securities Act
Required corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings and made them liable for any misrepresentations

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
The agency of the U.S. government that oversees U.S. financial markets and accounting standard-setting bodies.

Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
1934; Done to help stimulate the building industry through small loans to householders.

U.S. Housing Authority (USHA)
Gave loans to states to build low cost housing/ housing for low-income people

Alfred M. Landon
Governor of Kansas, Republican nominated to run against FDR; Weak on the radio and weaker in personal campaigning, and while he criticized FDR’s spending, he also favored enough of FDR’s New Deal to be ridiculed by the Democrats as an unsure idiot.

20th Amendment
Cut the lame-duck period down to six weeks from March 4th to January 20th

Reorganization Act
Gave FDR powers for new reforms, FDR gets executive office in White House (1939)

Hatch Act
A federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics (1939)

Harry L. Hopkins
Head of FERA and underlying Acts and Administrations

Francis E. Townsend
A doctor and critic of FDR’s who proposed that everyone 60 years of age or older should get $200 a month as long as they spent it within 30 days. (Shot down for mathematical “silliness”)

Harold L. Ickes
The Interior Secretary in charge of the PWA, he hired private contractors instead of workers on a government payroll, it indirectly served the purpose of work relief

Election of 1932 The Republicans nominated Herbert Hoover to run for president in the election of 1932. The Democrats chose Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He had been born to a wealthy New York family and served as the governor of New …

Causes of the Great Depression ♦Uneven distribution of wealth ♦Stock market speculation “buying on the margin” ♦Excessive use of credit ♦Overproduction on consumer goods ♦Weak farm economy ♦Government policies ♦Global economic policies Black Tuesday ♦Stock market crash (Oct. 29, 1929) …

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Election of 1928 Al Smith – Dem Herbert Hoover – Rep Hoover victorious because he was Rep (2 previous Pres. were Rep) Maintain prosperity Farming Crisis Over production Shows hard times on horizon WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE …

buying on margin one of the cause of the stock market crash before great depression where consumers can buy stocks with credit. uninformed investors one of the causes of the stock market crash before the great depression where investors are …

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