d. stem cells from the bone marrow
a. synovial membrane
b. fibrous capsule
c. articulating cartilage
a. The skin and soft tissue is exposed at the fracture site.
b. A bone is crushed into many small pieces.
c. The bone appears bent with a partial fracture line.
d. One end of a bone is forced into an adjacent bone.
a. The distal radius is broken.
b. The distal fibula is broken.
c. A vertebra appears crushed.
d. A spontaneous fracture occurs in weakened bone.
a. is broken down and absorbed immediately
b. provides the base for bone cells to produce new bone
c. is the structure into which granulation tissue grows
d. produces fibroblasts to lay down new cartilage
a. can bear weight
b. serves as a splint across the fracture site
c. is the tissue to gradually be remodeled
d. is made up of new bone
a. excessive bone movement
b. severe ischemia and tissue necrosis
c. malunion or nonunion
d. fat emboli to form
b. pain and tenderness
c. increased range of motion at a joint
d. deformity at a joint
a. weight-bearing activity
b. a sedentary lifestyle
c. long-term intake of glucocorticoids
d. calcium deficit
a. Bone resorption is greater than bone formation.
b. It causes compression fractures of the vertebrae.
c. Osteoporosis is always a primary disorder.
d. It often leads to kyphosis and loss of height.
a. intermittent, increasing with activity
b. sharp, increased with joint movement
c. mild, aching when weight-bearing
d. steady, severe, and persisting with rest
a. an autosomal recessive gene
b. an X-linked recessive gene
c. an autosomal dominant gene
d. a codominant gene
a. There is difficulty climbing stairs or standing up at 2 to 3 years of age.
b. It involves only the legs and pelvis.
c. Skeletal muscle atrophy can be seen in the legs of a toddler.
d. It cannot be detected in any carriers.
a. Inflammation and fibrosis develop at the joints.
b. Degeneration of articulating cartilage occurs in the large joints.
c. It progresses bilaterally through the small joints.
d. There are no changes in the bone at the affected joints.
a. relief with moderate activity
b. quite severe in the early stages
c. aggravated by general muscle aching
d. increased with weight-bearing and activity
a. the osteophytes and irregular cartilage surface
b. the wider joint space
c. decreased amount of synovial fluid in the cavity
d. fibrosis involving the joint capsule and ligaments
a. The affected joints respond well to anti-inflammatory medication.
b. Additional joints will never be affected.
c. Damage is irreversible and usually progressive.
d. Any affected joint can be replaced with a prosthesis.
a. random single joints, progressing to involve other joints
b. bilateral small joints, symmetrical progression to other joints
c. abused or damaged joints first, then joints damaged by compensatory movement
d. progressive degeneration in selected joints
a. a degenerative disorder involving the small joints
b. a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting all joints
c. a systemic inflammatory disorder due to an autoimmune reaction
d. an inflammatory disorder causing damage to many organs
a. enzymatic destruction by the pannus
b. inflamed synovial membrane covers the cartilage
c. fibrous tissue connects the ends of the bones
d. blood supply to the cartilage is lost
a. relatively normal
b. enlarged, firm, crepitus with movement
c. deformed, pale and nodular
d. red, warm, swollen, and tender to touch
a. skeletal muscle hypertrophies
b. fibrosis occurs in the joint
c. replacement cartilage changes alignment
d. ligaments and tendons shorten
a. nodules in various tissues, severe fatigue, and anorexia
b. headache, leukopenia, high fever
c. swelling and dysfunction in many organs
d. progressive damage to a joint
c. severe anemia
d. orthostatic hypotension
a. Only small joints are affected.
b. Rheumatoid factor is not present in JRA, but systemic effects are more severe.
c. Onset is more insidious in JRA.
d. Deformity and loss of function occur in most children with JRA.
a. multiple joints that are swollen, red, and painful at one time
b. presence of mild fever, fatigue, and leukocytosis
c. purulent synovial fluid present in a single, swollen joint
d. presence of many antibodies in the blood
a. a sudden increase in serum uric acid levels
b. severe hypercalcemia
c. mild trauma to the toes
d. development of a tophus
a. costovertebral joints and progression down the spine
b. cervical and thoracic vertebrae, causing kyphosis
c. sacroiliac joints and progression up the spine
d. peripheral joints and then proceeds to the vertebrae
a. damage to the spinal nerves and loss of function
c. impaired heart and lung function
d. rigidity, postural changes, and osteoporosis
a. They are found in the hip joints.
b. They are secretory membranes in joints.
c. They prevent excessive movement of joints.
d. They are found in the shoulder joint.
1. lack of movement of the bone
2. prolonged inflammation and ischemia
3. presence of osteomyelitis
4. close approximation of bone ends
-prolonged inflammation & ischemia
-presence of osteomyelitis
a. additional ischemia in the broken bone
b. nonunion or malunion of the fracture
c. pulmonary inflammation and obstruction
d. abscess and infection at a distant site
c. skeletal muscle
a. non-weight-bearing exercises
b. dietary supplements of calcium and vitamin D
c. transplants of osteoblasts
d. avoidance of all hormones
a. joint pain and stiffness throughout the body
b. degeneration and atrophy of skeletal muscles in back and lower limbs
c. localized areas of constant pain
d. specific trigger points for pain and tenderness
d. other bones
d. synovial joints
a. excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts
b. a deficit of Vitamin D and phosphates
c. replacement of bone by fibrous tissue
a. multiple pathologic fractures
b. increased intracranial pressure
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b
a. skull bones
b. the mandible
c. wrist bones
d. the femur