ch 26 musculoskeletal disorders (patho final)

Which of the following cells produce new bone?
a. osteocytes
b. osteoblasts
c. osteoclasts
d. stem cells from the bone marrow
osteoblasts

What is the chemical transmitter released at the neuromuscular junction?
a. norepinephrine
b. GABA
c. serotonin
d. acetylcholine
acetycholine

What structure facilitates joint movement?
a. synovial membrane
b. fibrous capsule
c. articulating cartilage
d. menisci
articulating cartilage

Which of the following would identify an open or compound fracture?
a. The skin and soft tissue is exposed at the fracture site.
b. A bone is crushed into many small pieces.
c. The bone appears bent with a partial fracture line.
d. One end of a bone is forced into an adjacent bone.
the skin & soft tissue exposed at the fx site

Which of the following describes a Colles’ fracture?
a. The distal radius is broken.
b. The distal fibula is broken.
c. A vertebra appears crushed.
d. A spontaneous fracture occurs in weakened bone.
the distal radius is broken

During the fracture healing process, the hematoma:
a. is broken down and absorbed immediately
b. provides the base for bone cells to produce new bone
c. is the structure into which granulation tissue grows
d. produces fibroblasts to lay down new cartilage
is the structure into which granulation tissue grows

When a fracture is healing, the procallus or fibrocartilaginous callus:
a. can bear weight
b. serves as a splint across the fracture site
c. is the tissue to gradually be remodeled
d. is made up of new bone
serves as a spline across the fx site

The inflammation surrounding a fracture site during the first few days may complicate healing by causing:
a. excessive bone movement
b. severe ischemia and tissue necrosis
c. malunion or nonunion
d. fat emboli to form
severe ischemia & tissue necrosis

What is a sign of a dislocation?
a. crepitus
b. pain and tenderness
c. increased range of motion at a joint
d. deformity at a joint
deformity at a joint

All of the following predispose to osteoporosis EXCEPT:
a. weight-bearing activity
b. a sedentary lifestyle
c. long-term intake of glucocorticoids
d. calcium deficit
WB activity

Which of the following statements does NOT apply to osteoporosis?
a. Bone resorption is greater than bone formation.
b. It causes compression fractures of the vertebrae.
c. Osteoporosis is always a primary disorder.
d. It often leads to kyphosis and loss of height.
OA is alway a primary disorder

Which of the following best describes the typical bone pain caused by osteogenic sarcoma?
a. intermittent, increasing with activity
b. sharp, increased with joint movement
c. mild, aching when weight-bearing
d. steady, severe, and persisting with rest
steady, severe, & persisting with rest

How is Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy inherited?
a. an autosomal recessive gene
b. an X-linked recessive gene
c. an autosomal dominant gene
d. a codominant gene
an X-linked recessive gene

Which of the following is correct about Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy?
a. There is difficulty climbing stairs or standing up at 2 to 3 years of age.
b. It involves only the legs and pelvis.
c. Skeletal muscle atrophy can be seen in the legs of a toddler.
d. It cannot be detected in any carriers.
there is difficulty climbing stairs or standing up at 2/3 years of age

Which of the following is characteristic of osteoarthritis?
a. Inflammation and fibrosis develop at the joints.
b. Degeneration of articulating cartilage occurs in the large joints.
c. It progresses bilaterally through the small joints.
d. There are no changes in the bone at the affected joints.
degeneration of articulating cartilage occurs in the large joints

What is a typical characteristic of the pain caused by osteoarthritis?
a. relief with moderate activity
b. quite severe in the early stages
c. aggravated by general muscle aching
d. increased with weight-bearing and activity
increased with WB & activity

What limits joint movement in osteoarthritis?
a. the osteophytes and irregular cartilage surface
b. the wider joint space
c. decreased amount of synovial fluid in the cavity
d. fibrosis involving the joint capsule and ligaments
the osteophytes & irregular cartilage surface

What is the prognosis for osteoarthritis?
a. The affected joints respond well to anti-inflammatory medication.
b. Additional joints will never be affected.
c. Damage is irreversible and usually progressive.
d. Any affected joint can be replaced with a prosthesis.
damage is irreversible & usually progressive

What is the typical joint involvement with rheumatoid arthritis?
a. random single joints, progressing to involve other joints
b. bilateral small joints, symmetrical progression to other joints
c. abused or damaged joints first, then joints damaged by compensatory movement
d. progressive degeneration in selected joints
bilateral small joints, symmetrical progression to other joints

What is the basic pathology of rheumatoid arthritis?
a. a degenerative disorder involving the small joints
b. a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting all joints
c. a systemic inflammatory disorder due to an autoimmune reaction
d. an inflammatory disorder causing damage to many organs
a systemic inflammatory disorder due to an autoimmune rxn

How is the articular cartilage damaged in rheumatoid arthritis?
a. enzymatic destruction by the pannus
b. inflamed synovial membrane covers the cartilage
c. fibrous tissue connects the ends of the bones
d. blood supply to the cartilage is lost
enzymatic destruction by the pannus

How does the joint appear during an exacerbation of rheumatoid arthritis?
a. relatively normal
b. enlarged, firm, crepitus with movement
c. deformed, pale and nodular
d. red, warm, swollen, and tender to touch
red, warm, swollen & tender to touch

Why does ankylosis and deformity develop in rheumatoid arthritis?
a. skeletal muscle hypertrophies
b. fibrosis occurs in the joint
c. replacement cartilage changes alignment
d. ligaments and tendons shorten
skeletal muscle hypertrophies

Systemic effects of rheumatoid arthritis are manifested as:
a. nodules in various tissues, severe fatigue, and anorexia
b. headache, leukopenia, high fever
c. swelling and dysfunction in many organs
d. progressive damage to a joint
nodules in various tissues, severe fatigue & anorexia

What is a common effect of long-term use of glucocorticoids to treat rheumatoid arthritis?
a. leukocytosis
b. osteoporosis
c. severe anemia
d. orthostatic hypotension
osteoporosis

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis differs from the adult form in that:
a. Only small joints are affected.
b. Rheumatoid factor is not present in JRA, but systemic effects are more severe.
c. Onset is more insidious in JRA.
d. Deformity and loss of function occur in most children with JRA.
rheumatoid factor is not present in JRA, but systemic effect are more severe

Which of the following distinguishes septic arthritis?
a. multiple joints that are swollen, red, and painful at one time
b. presence of mild fever, fatigue, and leukocytosis
c. purulent synovial fluid present in a single, swollen joint
d. presence of many antibodies in the blood
purulent synovial fluid present in a single, swollen joint

Which of the following may precipitate an attack of gout?
a. a sudden increase in serum uric acid levels
b. severe hypercalcemia
c. mild trauma to the toes
d. development of a tophus
a sudden increase in serum uric acid levels

Where does inflammation usually begin in an individual with ankylosing spondylitis?
a. costovertebral joints and progression down the spine
b. cervical and thoracic vertebrae, causing kyphosis
c. sacroiliac joints and progression up the spine
d. peripheral joints and then proceeds to the vertebrae
SI joints & progression up to the spine

What is a common outcome of fibrosis, calcification, and fusion of the spine in ankylosing spondylitis?
a. damage to the spinal nerves and loss of function
b. paraplegia
c. impaired heart and lung function
d. rigidity, postural changes, and osteoporosis
rigidity, postural changes & osteoporosis

Which statement applies to menisci?
a. They are found in the hip joints.
b. They are secretory membranes in joints.
c. They prevent excessive movement of joints.
d. They are found in the shoulder joint.
they prevent excessive movements of joints

Which factors delay healing of bone fractures?
1. lack of movement of the bone
2. prolonged inflammation and ischemia
3. presence of osteomyelitis
4. close approximation of bone ends
2,3
-prolonged inflammation & ischemia
-presence of osteomyelitis

What is the likely immediate result of fat emboli from a broken femur?
a. additional ischemia in the broken bone
b. nonunion or malunion of the fracture
c. pulmonary inflammation and obstruction
d. abscess and infection at a distant site
pulmonary inflammation & obstruction

Which statement defines a sprain? A tear in a ___________:
a. ligament
b. tendon
c. skeletal muscle
d. meniscus
ligament

Therapeutic measures for osteoporosis include:
a. non-weight-bearing exercises
b. dietary supplements of calcium and vitamin D
c. transplants of osteoblasts
d. avoidance of all hormones
dietary supplements of calcium & vitamin D

What is the distinguishing feature of primary fibromyalgia syndrome?
a. joint pain and stiffness throughout the body
b. degeneration and atrophy of skeletal muscles in back and lower limbs
c. localized areas of constant pain
d. specific trigger points for pain and tenderness
specific trigger points for pain & tenderness

Ewing’s sarcoma metastasizes at an early stage to the:
a. brain
b. liver
c. lungs
d. other bones
lungs

Immovable joints are called:
a. amphiarthroses
b. synarthroses
c. diarthroses
d. synovial joints
synarthrosis

Rickets results from:
a. excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts
b. a deficit of Vitamin D and phosphates
c. replacement of bone by fibrous tissue
d. hyperparathyroidism
a deficit of vitamin D & phosphates

Paget’s disease often leads to:
a. multiple pathologic fractures
b. increased intracranial pressure
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b
multiple pathologic fx & increased intracranial pressure

Bones classified as “irregular” would include:
a. skull bones
b. the mandible
c. wrist bones
d. the femur
the mandible

The inflammation surrounding a fracture site during the first few days may complicate healing by causing: sever ischemia and tissue necrosis Immovable joints are called synarthroses WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

1.What is the chemical transmitter released at the neuromuscular junction? acetylcholine 2. What structure facilitates joint movement? articulating cartilage WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample 3. Which …

Osteoporosis – bone deterioration due to decreased bone density – Lack of dietary calcium and vitamin D*** – Disrupted bone homeostasis – increased fractures – decreased height in elderly*** Osteomalacia softening of bone (called rickets in children) WE WILL WRITE …

Fractures a break in a bone What is the pathophysiology of a fracture and healing? bleeding–> clot/ hematoma around fracture site–> surrounding tissue becomes necrotic (necrosis)–> inflammation–> dilation of blood vessels and exudate–> increased osteoblast activity (callous)–> new bone–> remodeling …

The incidence of fractures of the pelvis is highest in: elderly adults A 65-year-old Hispanic female is admitted to the hospital with a pathologic, compound, oblique fracture of the femur. Which of the following statements best describes this type of …

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