Ch. 25: Fundamentals of Nursing (Craven) – Respiratory Function

Spherical, saclike epithelial structures in the lungs
through which gas exchange occurs

Absence of respiration

arterial blood gas

Collapse of alveoli

Narrow airways that conduct air into alveolar ducts and alveoli

Narrowing of the bronchioles caused by tightening of the smooth muscles in the airways

Grayish, bluish, or purplish skin tone

Movement of molecules from an area of higher
concentration to one of lower concentration

Breathing that requires marked effort

forced inspired oxygen concentration

the coughing up of blood

excessive carbon dioxide in the bloodstream, typically caused by inadequate respiration

Breathing in excess of metabolic demands,
resulting in removal of too much carbon dioxide from the blood; indicated by decreased PaCO2

Breathing insufficient to meet metabolic demands and adequately remove carbon dioxide from the blood; indicated by elevated PaCO2

Below normal amount of oxygen in the blood

Decreased amount of oxygen available to the tissues

oxygen saturation
Amount of oxygen in the blood

pulse oximetry
Noninvasive means for approximating oxygenation that uses infrared light and a sensor attached to the client’s finger or earlobe to determine the percentage of hemoglobin that has combined with oxygen

Respiratory splinting is defined as reduced inspiratory effort as a result of sharp pain upon inspiration (severe pleuritic chest pain). This can result in atelectasis post-operatively.

Permanent or temporary opening into the
trachea through the neck

Movement of air in and out of the lungs;

A baby is born prematurely at 26 weeks requiring ventila- tory support. The nurse caring for this neonate knows that this is because of which of the following?
a. Lack of functioning alveoli
b. Bronchospasm
c. Ineffective cough
d. Lack of surfactant
d. Lack of surfactant, which decreases surface tension and permits alveolar expansion, is an issue in premature babies. Functioning alveoli, which make breathing effective, are present at approximately 24 to 25 weeks. Bronchospasm and ineffective cough are not associated with premature infant respiratory development.

A nurse is caring for a patient with COPD. In performing his assessment, he finds rounded, enlarged finger tips. He realizes that this is which of the following symptoms?
a. Cyanosis
b. Dyspnea
c. Clubbing
d. Arthritis
c. Clubbing is a phenomena thought to be related to long-term tissue hypoxia causing the release of a substance that dilates the vessels of the fingertips. Clubbing is seen in lung cancer, cystic fibrosis, lung abscesses, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cyanosis is bluish skin discoloration caused by desaturation of oxygen on the hemoglobin in the blood. Dyspnea describes labored breathing and breathlessness. Arthritis is commonly present in the fingers and may cause enlarged joints but is unrelated to COPD.

An asthmatic patient is self-administering his MDI. The nurse notes that he is not able to time his inhalations with activation of the inhaler. Which of the following is most appropriate?
a. Recommend additional puffs to meet the prescribed dosing
b. Insist on administering the MDI for the patient
c. Provide a spacer attachment with appropriate
d. Administer supplementary oxygen
c. A spacer attachment and patient education would sustain the patient’s independence in medication administration and provide the appropriate dosing of the metered-dose inhaler (MDI). The spacer effectively holds the aerosolized medication until the patient is ready to inhale. Additional puffs do not necessarily increase the amount that the patient receives and it will be hard to interpret how much is actually obtained. The nurse administering the MDI may allow for accurate dosing but undermines patient independence and misses an educational opportunity for future dosing. Administering oxygen does not address the problem of ineffective MDI administration and is not necessarily indicated in this scenario.

A patient with COPD was consistently displaying oxygen saturation levels of 90% on room air. The nursing assistant added supplementary oxygen at 2 L per minute via nasal cannula and then increased it to 4 L per minute. The oxy- gen saturation continues at 91%, and the patient is dozing throughout the day. What should the nurse do first?
a. Remove the supplementary oxygen and check the SpO2 level.
b. Switch the nasal cannula to a mask
c. Check a full set of vital signs
d. Increase the oxygen to 6 L per minute via nasal cannula
a. COPD patients are at risk for CO2 narcosis when administered supplementary oxygen if they are unable to clear the carbon dioxide. The nurse should remove the oxygen and recheck the saturation level. Switching the cannula to a mask would not address CO2 narcosis and may increase the effects. A full set of vital signs would not give additional clues to the underlying cause. Increasing the oxygen level would further depress the respiratory drive, making the patient more somnolent and not effectively increasing the oxygen amount received.

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Socialization a process that involves learning theory and skills and internalizing an identity appropriate to a specific role. (pg 6) Five levels of proficiency when acquiring and developing nursing skills Novice, Advanced Beginner, Competent, Proficient, and Expert. Differences in each …

Respiratory System the body system that functions to get oxygen from he environment and remove carbon dioxide and waste products from your body Cellular Respiration uses oxygen in chemical reactions that release energy WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE …

organs of the respiratory system nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs-aveoli apnea temporary cessation of breathing WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample dyspnea difficult or labored breathing …

ACS – Acute coronary syndrome (828) Heart attack….heart tissue death (infarction) Another way of saying MI Afterload Resistance of left ventricular ejection. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my …

oxygen necessary for metabolism of nutrients to make energy w/out oxygen, cell death occurs rapidly atmosphere contains 21% oxygen WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample ventilation movement …

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