Ch. 22 Pharmacology/ Medical Terminology

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pharmacology
Pharmacology is the field of medicine that specializes in the study of drugs, including their sources, apperances, chemistry, actions and uses.

Pharmacodynamics
the study of how drugs interact in the human body.

pharmacist
A pharmacist is one who is licensed to prepare and dispense drugs.

pharmacy
A pharmacy is a place where drugs are dispensed

Chemotherapy
is the treatment with drugs that have a specific and deadly effect on disease-causing microorganisms (originally used in the treatment of infectious diseases). Now includes the treatment of mental illness and cancer.

Toxicology
Toxicology is the study of poisons, their detection, and their effects and established antidotes (substances that oppose the actions of poisons) and methods of treatment for conditions they produce.

The Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA)
was passed in 1938, this law regulates the quality, purity, potency, effectiveness, safety, labeling, and packaging of food, drug and cosmetic products.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The government agency that is responsible for administering and enforcing the FDCA within the united states.

Controlled Substance Act
the federal law concerned with the manufacture, distribution, and dispencing of a controlled substance. These drugs have the potential of being abused and causing physical or psychological dependence.

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
The governement agency that is responsible for administering and enforcing the Controlled Substance Act. Physicians who administer a controlled substance must enter their DEA number on the prescription.

Drug Schedule I
LSD, heroin, marijuana

Drug Schedule II
Morphine, cocaine, codeine, demerol, dilaudid

Drug Schedule III
Tylenol with codeine, Butisol, Hycodan

Drug Schedule IV
Librium, Valium, Darvon, Equanil

Drug Schedule V
Robitussin A-C, Donnagel-PG, Lomotil

adverse reaction
The body’s reaction to a drug in an unexpected way that may endanger a patients health and safety.

Anaphylactic shock
A life-threatening hypersensitive reaction to food or drugs. The patient experiences acute respiratory distress; hypotension; edema; tacchycardia; cool, pale skin; cyanosis; and possibly convulsions shortly after administration of the medication.

buccal medication
Medication placed in the mouth next to the cheek; where it is absorbed into the mucous membrane lining of the mouth.

contradiction
Any special symptom or circumstance that indicates that the use of a particular drug or procedure is dangerous, not advised, or has not been proven safe for administration.

controlled substance
Drugs that have potential for abuse. These drugs are placed into five categories, ranging from scheduled I drugs (which are most dangerous and most likely to be abused) to scheduled V drugs, which are the least dangerous and least likely to be abused; also known as schedule drugs.

cumulation
Cumulation means that a drug level begins to accumulate in the body with repeated doses because the drug is not completely excreted from the body before another dose is administered.

drug
Any substance that when taken into the body may modify one or more of its functions

Drug Enforcement Administration
The government agency responsbile for administering and enforcing the Controlled Substances Act.

Food and Drug Administration
The government agency responsible for administering and enforcing the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act within the United States.

Hospital Formulary
A reference book that lists all of the drugs commonly stocked in a hospital pharmacy. This book provides information about the characteristics of drugs and their clinical uses.

idiosyncrasy
An unusual, inappropriate response to a drug or to the usual effective dose of a drug. This reaction can be life-threatening.

inhalation medication
Medication is sprayed or breathed into the nose, throat, and lungs. It is absorbed into the mucous membrane lining of the nose and throat and by the alveoli of the lungs.

intradermal medication
Medication inserted just beneath the epidermis, using a syringe and needle.

intramuscular medication
Medication injected directly into the muscle.

intravenous medication
Medication injected directly into the vein, entering the bloodstream immediately.

over the counter (OTC)
Medication available without a prescription.

parenteral medication
Any route of administration not involving the gastrointestinal tract, e.g. , topical, inhalation, or injection.

potency
strength

rectal medication
Medication inserted into the rectum and slowly absorbed into the mucous membrane lining of the rectum. It is in the form of a suppository, which melts as the body temperature warms it , or a retention enema.

route of administration
The method of introducing a medication into the body.

side effects
An additional effect on the body by a drug that was not part of the goal for that medication. Nausea is a common side effect of many drugs.

subcutaneous medication
Medication injected into the subcutaneous layer, or fatty tissue, of the skin.

sublingual medication
Medication placed under the tongue, where it dissolves in the patients saliva and is quickly absorbed through the mucous membrane lining of the mouth

systemic effect
A generalized response to a drug. The drug has a wide spread influence on the body because it is absorbed into the bloodstream.

tolerance
The body’s decreased response to the effect of a drug after repeated doses.

vaginal medication
Medication inserted into the vagina; may be in the form of a suppository, cream, foam or tablet.

chemical name
The chemical name of the drug describes the chemical structure of the drug.

official name
is the name established when the drug is first manufactured. The spelling of the generic name is written in lowercase letters.

potentiation
Potentiation occurs when two drugs administered together produce a more powerful response that the sum of their individual effects.

oral
An oral medication is one that is given by mouth and swallowed.

topical
A topical medication is one applied directly to the skin or mucous membrane for a local effect to the area.

transdermal
A method of applying a drug to unbroken skin. The drug is absorbed continously and produces a systemic effect.

anagesic
relieves pain

anesthetic
Partially or completely numbs or eliminates sensitivity with or without loss of consciousness.

antiarrhythmic
corrects cardiac arrhythmias (irregular beats)

antibiotic
Stops or controls the growth of infection-causing microorganisms.

anticoagulant
Prevents clot continuation and formation.

anticonvulsant
Prevents or relieves convulsions (seizures)

antidepressant
Prevents, cures, or alleviates mental depression

antidiabetic
Helps control the blood sugar level

antidiarrheal
Prevents or treats diarrhea

antidiuretic
Suppresses the formation of urine

antiemetic
Prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting

antifungal
Destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi

antihistamine
Opposes the action of histamine, which is released in allergic reaction.

antihypertensive
Prevents or controls high blood pressure

anti-infective (antibiotic)
Stops or controls the growth of infection-causing microorganisms

anti-inflammatory
Counteracts inflammation in the body

antineoplastic
Prevents the development, growth, or reproduction of cancerous cells.

antitussive
Relieves cough due to various causes.

antiulcer agent
treats and prevents peptic ulcers and gastric hypersecretion.

antiviral agent
Treats various viral conditions such as serious herpes virus infections, chicken pox, and infuenza A

beta blocker
Treats hypertension, angina, and various abnormal heart rhythms

bronchodilator
Expands the bronchial tubes by relaxing the bronchial muscles.

calcium channel blocker
Treats hypertension, angina, and various abnormal heart rhythms.

diuretic
Increases urine secretion

hormone
Treats deficiency states where specific hormone levels is abnormally low.

hypnotic
Induces sleep or dulls the senses

immunosuppressant
Suppresses the body’s natural immune response to an antigen, as in treatment for transplant patients.

laxative
Prevents constipation or promotes the emptying of the bowel contents with ease.

lipid-lowering agent
Reduces blood lipid (fat) levels

sedative
Exerts a soothing or tranquilizing effect on the body

skeletal muscle relaxant
Relieves muscle tension

vitamin
Prevents and treats vitamin deficiencies and used as dietary supplement.

a.c.
before meals

ad lib
as desired

AM
mourning

b.i.d.
twice a day

C
Celsiius (centigrade)

c (line above c)
with

caps
capsule, capsules

cm
centimeter

DEA
Drug Enforcement Administration

elix
elixir

F
Fahrenheit

FDA
Food and Drug Administration

FDCA
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

g
gram

gr, Gr
grain

gt.,gtt
drop, drops

h, hr
hour

h2O
water

h.s.
hour of sleep (bedtime)

ID
intradermal

IM
intramuscular

IV
intravenous

kg
kilogram

L
liter

lb
pound

mg
milligram

mEq
miiliequivalent

ml.
milliliter

n.p.o., NPO
nothing by mouth

O2 (small 2)
oxygen

OTC
over the counter (drugs that require no prescription)

oz
ounce

p (line over top of p)
after

p.c. or pc
after meals

PDR
Physicians Desk Reference

PM
afternoon

p.o., po, or PO
by mouth (per os)

p.r.n., or prn
as needed

q
every

q.a.m.
every morning

q.h. or qh
every hour

q.2 h., q.3 h.
every 2 hours, every 3 hours…..

q.i.d. or qid
four times a day

q.s. or qs
quantity sufficient

Rx
take; treatment; prescription

s (line over s)
without

sig
write on label (let it bw labeled)

SL
sublingual

sos
if necessary

stat
immediately

subq
subcutaneous

supp
suppository

tab
tablet

t.i.d., or tid
three times a day

ung, oint.
ointment

VO
verbal order

x
times, multiplied

PR
Per rectum

R
rectum

DS
Double Strength

inj
Injection

sol
solution

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We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy angina pectoris spasmlike pain in the chest caused by myocardial anoxia bronchodilator drug that relaxes contractions of the smooth …

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