Ch 2. Drugs, and Drug -Taking Behavior

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1. The U.S. government in the 1800s had few regulations on industry and in general took a “hands-off” approach to government that has been referred to by the term
-crime.
-laissez-faire.
-toxicity.
-trends.
-laissez-faire.

2. The text lists three concerns that led to the adoption of the first U.S. laws regulating what we now call controlled substances. Which of these was NOT one of the three?
-high profits for drug sellers
-toxicity
-dependence
-association of drug use with crime
-high profits for drug sellers

3. When using a substance makes normal activities such as driving result in harmful accidents, this is called
-behavioral tolerance.
-drug misuse.
-behavioral toxicity.
-laissez-faire.
-behavioral toxicity.

4. Acute drug effects are those that
-are dangerous.
-are caused by the immediate presence of the drug in the body.
-are unrelated to dose.
-last more than a day.
-are caused by the immediate presence of the drug in the body.

5. Which is an example of chronic physiological toxicity?
-high blood pressure from smoking
-amotivational syndrome
-paranoia from methamphetamine use
-respiratory arrest from an alcohol overdose
-high blood pressure from smoking

6. The Drug Abuse Warning Network
-is a system of free public-service announcements.
-is a voluntary organization for teachers and police officers.
-monitors drug-related medical emergencies.
-monitors arrest rates for various drug-law violations.
-monitors drug-related medical emergencies.

7. According to recent DAWN data, which of these substances is near the top of the emergency room visits list? → alcohol-in-combination marijuana methamphetamine ecstasy (MDMA)
→ alcohol-in-combination

8. What is a Drug Recognition Expert?
-A physician trained to recognize a variety of medications
-A police officer trained to recognize drug-related behavioral impairments
-A teacher trained to recognize the scent of burning marijuana
-None of the above
-A police officer trained to recognize drug-related behavioral impairments

9. A 2010 analysis of drug-reLated deaths conducted by the CDC indicates that __________ is responsible for more than half of drug overdose deaths.
-heroin
-pharmaceutical drugs
-marijuana
-None of the above
-pharmaceutical drugs

10. In comparing the relative toxicity of marijuana and cocaine, it is important to take into account
-the user’s gender.
-availability and price.
-urban vs. rural environment.
-that many more people use marijuana than use cocaine.
-that many more people use marijuana than use cocaine.

11. DAWN data provides all of the following EXCEPT
-information about which drugs are associated with the greatest number of ER visits.
-clear measures of the toxicity of individual drugs.
-data regarding problems associated with alcohol-in-combination.
-general information about trends in drug-related ER visits.
-clear measures of the toxicity of individual drugs.

12. Since the 1990s, HIV transmission rates among intravenous drug users have been reduced from about 50% to about 10%. According to the text, which of these factors led to this decrease?
-syringe exchange programs
-sexual abstinence education
-increased Narcotics Anonymous attendance
-decreased use of hormonal contraceptives
-syringe exchange programs

13. When repeated exposure to the same dose of a drug results in a lesser effect, this is called
-acute toxicity.
-dependence.
-vaccination.
-tolerance.
-tolerance.

14. The occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome is evidence of
-physical dependence.
-chronic behavioral disorder.
-an antigen-antibody reaction.
-craving.
-physical dependence.

15. The drugs with which people are most likely to develop psychological (behavioral) dependence are generally also found to have
-stimulant effects.
-pain-relieving effects.
-sedative effects.
-reinforcing effects in laboratory animals.
-reinforcing effects in laboratory animals.

16. The DSM-V does not define addiction as such, but has diagnostic criteria for
-habituation.
-substance use disorders.
-chronic intoxication.
-drug-associated bipolar disorder.
-substance use disorders.

17. As views of substance dependence have changed based on scientific research, the real driving force behind repeated excessive drug use is now believed to be
-psychological dependence, based on reinforcement.
-physical dependence, caused by tolerance.
-an allergic reaction to the substance.
-unmet psychological needs in early childhood.
-psychological dependence, based on reinforcement.

18. Which of these substances has the highest lifetime estimate of dependence?
-LSD
-marijuana
-alcohol
-nicotine
-nicotine

19. Brain scan studies with drug users
-can show which people have developed dependence and which have not.
-can predict which people will later develop dependence.
-so far can only show changes in response to drug administration.
-are very strong predictors of alcohol use, but not for other substances.
-so far can only show changes in response to drug administration.

20. Those who are diagnosed with a personality disorder, such as antisocial personality disorder,
-have an increased likelihood of also having a substance use disorder.
-are neither more nor less likely to have a substance use disorder.
-are actually less likely to be dependent on a substance.
-are often given stimulant drugs as a treatment for the personality disorder.
-have an increased likelihood of also having a substance use disorder.

21. In determining whether using a drug causes people to become criminals, it is important to remember that
-there is no relationship between crime and illicit drug use.
-most illicit drugs cause damage to the areas of the brain responsible for understanding right from wrong.
-longitudinal studies find that indicators of criminal or antisocial behavior usually occur before the first use of any illicit drug.
-consistent personality changes are likely with even a few exposures to heroin or cocaine.
-longitudinal studies find that indicators of criminal or antisocial behavior usually occur

22. Which of the following drugs has been clearly linked to crimes and violence?
-alcohol
-heroin
-marijuana
-cocaine
-alcohol

23. In an annual study done by the U.S. Justice Department, people arrested for various crimes are given urine tests to detect the presence of drugs. In 2012, about ____ percent of the adult male arrestees tested positive for at least one illicit drug.
-100
-between 60 and 80
-0
-between 10 and 30
-between 60 and 80

24. About how many arrests are made in the U.S. each year for drug-law violations?
-1,500,000
-200,000
-50,000
-5,000
-1,500,000

25. Rank the following drugs (from highest to lowest) according to the number of mentions in the 2009 DAWN emergency department dataset.
-Cocaine, heroin, prescription opioids, antidepressants
-Cocaine, prescription opioids, heroin, antidepressants
-Alcohol-in-combination, cocaine, heroin, prescription opioids
-Alcohol-in-combination, prescription opioids, heroin, cocaine
-Cocaine, prescription opioids, heroin, antidepressants

26. The term “laissez-faire” refers to the tendency of news media to sensationalize drug problems.
F

27. One important factor that led Congress to adopt the first laws regulating what we now call controlled substances was the association of drug use with crime.
T

28. Chronic drug effects refer to those that are due to prolonged exposure to the drug.
T

29. The DAWN system tells us exactly how many ER visits are caused by a specific drug each year.
F

30. In 2009, methamphetamine was the most frequently cited drug associated with emergency-room visits.
F

31. Our best estimate is that tobacco cigarettes are associated with over 400,000 deaths per year.
T

32. Physical dependence is often defined by the appearance of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is stopped.
T

33. The drugs that are most likely to lead to dependence are the ones that have reduced effects after repeated use.
F

34. To receive diagnosis of substance use disorder an individual must satisfy at least 2 diagnostic criteria, one which has to be a symptom of physical dependence (tolerance or withdrawal).
F

35. Recent brain imaging data indicates that drug dependence is caused by an underlying biological abnormality.
F

36. The data suggest that marijuana use increases the likelihood of a person committing a violent crime.
F

37. Using survey data, discuss the relative toxicity of alcohol and cocaine.
Alcohol-in-combination and cocaine have been associated with similar numbers of emergency room visits over the years. Since many more people use alcohol than use cocaine, one could conclude that cocaine is relatively more dangerous (per user) than alcohol. However, it is also important to note that DAWN does not report on alcohol when it is used alone, only in combination with other substances. Bonus: cocaine’s toxicity is also influenced by how it is used.

38. Discuss the relative dependence liability of different drugs.
Some drugs are more likely than others to lead to compulsive use. These tend to be the drugs that work as positive reinforcers in animal models. Bonus: However, blaming dependence entirely on the drug itself ignores many other important social and individual variables.

39. Describe several ways in which people have thought that drug use might be a cause of criminal behavior
Drug use might change the individual’s personality in a lasting way, making him or her into a criminal type (evidence does not support this). Drug use might cause criminal behavior while the person is under the influence of the drug (evidence strongest for alcohol). Crimes may be carried out for the purpose of obtaining money to purchase illicit drugs (evidence supports this). Illicit drug use is a crime (over 1.5 million arrests per year in the U.S.).

40. Explain the difference between physical dependence on a drug and psychological dependence on a drug.
In physical dependence, when a person stops taking the drug a set of physiological symptoms will appear as the drug level in the system drops (withdrawal). Symptoms disappear when the drug is taken again. In psychological dependence, when a person takes a drug (behavioral act), they receive a consequence such as a feeling of euphoria, perhaps. This consequence increases the likelihood that the drug will be taken again. Thus, the behavior is being reinforced by the consequence.

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