Ch. 16 Med Term

acidosis
condition brought about by an abnormal accumulation of acid products of metabolism such as seen in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus

addison disease
chronic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in the hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex. signs and symptoms may include weakness, darkening of skin, loss of appetite, depression and other emotional problems

cretinism
condition caused by congenital absence or atrophy (wasting away) of the thyroid gland, resulting in hypothyroidism. the disease is characterized by puffy features, mental deficiency, large tongue, and dwarfism. also called congenital hypothyroidism

cushing syndrome
group of signs and symptoms attributed to the excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortices. this syndrome may be the result of a pituitary tumor or a primary adrenal gland dysfunction. signs include abnormally pigmented skin, “moon face”, pads of fat on the chest and abdomen. buffalo hump (fat on upper back), wasting away of muscle and hypertension

diabetes insipidus (DI)
result of decreased secretion of antidiurectic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. symptoms include excessive thirst (polydipsia), large amounts of urine (polyuria), and sodium being excreted from the body.

diabetes mellitus (DM)
chronic disease involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by underractivity of the islets of langerhans and characterized by elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia). DM can cause chronic renal disease, retinopathy, and neuropathy. in extreme cases the patient may develop ketosis, acidosis, and finally coma

gigantism
condition brought about by hypersecretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland before puberty

goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland

graves disease
a disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by the presence of hyperthyroidism, goiter and abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs

ketosis
condition resulting from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, in which the body has an abnormal concentration of ketone bodies resulting from excessive fat metabolism

metabolic syndrome
group of signs and symptoms including insulin resistance, obesity characterized by excessive fat around the waist and abdomen, hypertension, hyperglycemia, elevated triglycerides, and low levels of the good choloesterol HDL. risks include development of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, or stroke (also called syndrome X and insulin resistance syndrome)

myxedema
condition resulting from a deficiency of the thyroid horomor thyroxine; a severe form of hypothyroidism in an adult. signs include puffiness of the face and hands, coarse and thickened skin, enlarged tongue, slow speech and anemia

pheochromocytoma
tumor of the adrenal medulla, which is usually non-malignant and characterized by hypertension, headaches, palpitations, diaphoresis, chest pain and abdominal pain. surgical removal of the tumor is the most common treatment. though usually curable with early detection it can be fatal if untreated.

tetany
condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms as a result of low amounts of calcium in the blood caused by a deficiency of the parathyroid hormone

thyrotoxicosis
a condition caused by excessive thyroid hormones

radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)
a nuclear medicine scan that measures thyroid function. radioactive iodine is given to the patient orally, after which its uptake into the thyroid gland is measured.

thyroid scan
a nuclear medicine test that shows the size, shape and function of the thyroid gland. the patient is given a radioactive substance to visualize the thyroid gland. an image is recorded as the scanner is passed over the neck area; used to detect tumors and nodules

fasting blood sugar (FBS)
a blood test performed after the patient has fasted for 8 to 10 hours to determine the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood at the time of the test. elevation may indicate diabetes mellitus

glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C)
a blood test used monitor diabetic treatment by measuring the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin (coated with sugar) in the blood. HbA1C provides indications of blood sugar level over the past 3 months covering the 120 day lifespan of the red blood cell. also called hemoglobin A1C

thyroid stimulation hormone level (TSH)
a blood test that measures the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone in the blood; used to diagnose hypothyroidism and to monitor patients on thyroid replacement therapy.

thyroxine level (T4)
a blood study that gives the direct measurement of the amount of thyroxine in the patients blood. a greater than normal amount indicates hyperthyroidism, a less than normal amount indicates hypothyroidism.

exophthalmos
abnormal protrusion of the eyeball

hormone
chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland that is carried in the blood to a target tissue

isthmus
narrow strip of tissue connecting two larger parts in the body, such as the isthmus that connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland.

metabolism
sum total of all the chemical processes that take place in a living organism

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hypersecretion excessive production hyposecretion under production WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample giantism Hypersecretion of growth hormone before puberty (prepubertal); a condition characterized by excessive size and …

A condition of severe hypothyroidism seen in an adult is called myxedem A patient has normal thyroid gland function. Which of the following words would be used to describe the patient’s thyroid gland? euthyroid WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

An adrenal cortex disorder most commonly caused by an autoimmune reaction and resulting in a deficiency of glucocorticoids. and androgens is called Addison’s disease Which type of diabetes is a rare form caused by a mutation in an autosomal dominant …

AIC blood test that measures glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to assess glucose control ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone; a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex, WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR …

this is The principal disorder of the posterior pituitary diabetes insipidus diabetes insipidus results from hypo secretion of ADH WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Diabetes Insipidus …

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