Ch. 12 Prescription and OTC Drugs

1. Many of the capsules, pills, and powders that look like drugs and that consumers think of as drugs are actually classified by the FDA as
-food products.
-industrial chemicals.
-organic medicines.
-placebos.
-food products.

2. If you buy a bottle of St. John’s wort 300 mg tablets, each tablet will contain 300 mg
-of the active chemical ingredient in St. John’s wort.
-of plant material from St. John’s wort with variable active ingredients.
-total tablet weight, with an unknown amount of plant material or ingredients.
-of plant material with a known concentration of the active ingredient.
total tablet weight, with an unknown amount of plant material or ingredients.

3. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act
-requires manufacturers of dietary supplements to demonstrate safety and efficacy before marketing their products.
-directed the FDA to remove ephedra products from the market.
-expanded the definition of dietary supplements and restricted the FDA’s regulatory authority over them.
-outlawed multi-level marketing schemes for sales of dietary supplements.
-expanded the definition of dietary supplements and restricted the FDA’s regulatory authority over them.

4. The FDA was given additional authority over dietary supplements in 2006 to set up
-random safety checks.
-requirements for effectiveness.
-limits on television advertising.
-an “Adverse Events Reporting” process.
-an “Adverse Events Reporting” process.

5. SAMe (S-adenosyl-L-methionine) is a dietary supplement that has some research support for its possible use in treating
-impotence.
-depression.
-Parkinson’s disease.
-diabetes.
-depression.

6. What dietary supplement ingredient has been tested for its ability to improve memory in Alzheimer’s disease, but has produced only small and unreliable improvements in published research?
-lobelia
-androstenedione
-Ginkgo biloba
-St. John’s wort
-Ginkgo biloba

7. The U.S. market for over-the-counter drug products totals about
-$180 billion.
-$50 billion.
-$18 billion.
-$2 billion
-$18 billion.

8. Because of the way the FDA reviews and approves OTC drugs,
-each different brand is required to contain unique ingredients.
-various brands of a given type of remedy usually contain the same few active ingredients.
-each type of drug is limited to only a single active ingredient.
-it is impossible to tell from the label what each product’s active ingredients really are.
-various brands of a given type of remedy usually contain the same few active ingredients.

9. The 2006 revised PATRIOT Act required that products containing __________ be kept “behind the counter,” and buyers must show identification and sign for their purchase.
-pseudoephedrine
-aristolochic acid
-dextromethorphan
-taurine
-pseudoephedrine

10. The only active ingredient the FDA allows in OTC stimulants is
-ephedrine.
-dextroamphetamine.
-PPA.
-caffeine.
-caffeine.

11. Starting in 2007, the only FDA-approved OTC weight-control ingredient is
-PPA.
-caffeine.
-orlistat (alli).
-CCK.
-orlistat (alli).

12. OTC drugs approved as sleep aids, like Nytol and Sominex,
-contain PPA or dextromethorphan.
-all contain bromide salts.
-contain an antihistamine such as diphenhydramine.
-include low doses of codeine.
-contain an antihistamine such as diphenhydramine.

13. Acetylsalicylic acid was developed in the Bayer laboratory in Germany in 1898 and sold under the brand name
-Dextrine.
-Anazor.
-Merbaral.
-Aspirin.
-Aspirin.

14. Besides analgesia (pain relief), another important effect of aspirin is as a(n)
-antipyretic (reduces fever).
-coagulant (helps blood to clot).
-antihypertensive (lowers blood pressure).
-anesthetic.
-antipyretic (reduces fever).

15. Aspirin should not be used with children who have a viral infection because of increased risk of
-heart damage.
-kidney damage.
-spreading the infection.
-Reye’s syndrome.
-Reye’s syndrome.

16. The generic name for Tylenol and Datril is
-COX-1.
-acetaminophen.
-theophylline.
-ibuprofen.
-acetaminophen.

17. NSAID stands for
-National System for Accurate Information on Drugs.
-novel serotonin antagonist drug.
-next schedule analyzing incomplete data.
-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

18. Cold viruses are usually transmitted
-when you have become chilled.
-when someone sneezes near you.
-by being picked up on the hands and touching your eyes or nose.
-through saliva.
-by being picked up on the hands and touching your eyes or nose.

19. Why would you want dextromethorphan in a cold remedy?
-It acts as a cough suppressant.
-It acts as a nasal decongestant.
-It provides relief of body ache.
-It provides relief of runny nose.
-It acts as a cough suppressant.

20. There has been some reported abuse by young people of products containing _________, which they take in high doses to produce visual and auditory hallucinations.
-caffeine
-acetaminophen
-chlorpheniramine maleate
-dextromethorphan
-dextromethorphan

21. The acronym GRAS stands for
-generally regarded as secure.
-generally recognized as significant.
-generally recognized as safe.
-generally regarded as sound.
-generally recognized as safe.

22. Suppose you had a fever, a headache, and a swollen knee. Which medication would be most appropriate to treat all three symptoms?
-ibuprofen
-acetaminophen
-dextromethorphan
-acetylsalicyclic acid
-ibuprofen

23. Suppose you have a cold and you choose to take Tylenol Cold to treat your symptoms (runny nose, congested nasal passages, and fever). Which of these ingredients in this OTC product is unnecessary?
-dextromethorphan
-acetaminophen
-chlorpheniramine maleate
-phenylephrine
-dextromethorphan

24. The textbook suggests that consumers are best able to choose from among the wide variety of OTC products by
-knowing which are reputable manufacturers.
-reading the list of potential side effects.
-knowing a fairly small number of ingredient names.
-asking advice from their friends who have taken them.
-knowing a fairly small number of ingredient names.

25. If a bottle of pills on a drug store shelf is being sold as a dietary supplement, the label will refer to “nutritional information” and “serving size.”
T

26. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act increased the FDA’s control over dietary supplements.
F

27. The main proposed use for St. John’s wort has been for treating depression.
T

28. The FDA panels that review OTC drugs approve ingredients, not the actual products that often contain several ingredients.
T

29. OTC stimulants typically include pseudoephedrine.
F

30. Orlistat, found in the OTC weight control product alli, interferes with the absorption of fats from the intestine.
T

31. Aspirin was initially a brand name for Bayer’s acetylsalicylic acid.
T

32. The generic ingredient in Advil is acetylsalicylic acid.
F

33. Dextromethorphan is an antihistamine used to dry up a runny nose.
F

34. The heartburn drug Prevacid was recently moved from prescription only to OTC.
T

35. The evidence indicates that many dietary supplements enhance male sexual performance.
F

36. According to the 2012 Monitoring the Future survey, more 12th graders reported using OTC cough medicines containing dextromethorphan compared to cocaine or methamphetamine.
T

37. Why is it important for you as a consumer to know whether a product you find on the shelf in your pharmacy is being sold as an OTC drug or as a dietary supplement?
Dietary supplements do not have to demonstrate that they are effective. They often contain unknown amounts of plant products with unknown active ingredients. OTC drugs only contain ingredients that the FDA panels have agreed are safe and effective.

38. Describe the recent history and current status of OTC weight control products.
For many years, PPA was approved and all OTC weight-control products included it. Then in 2000, the FDA said it was not safe and removed it. There were no approved OTC ingredients, although some dietary supplements included ephedra until it was banned in 2004. In 2007, orlistat was approved (brand name alli). This inhibits fat absorption resulting in frequent bowel movements, loose oily stools, and flatulence. A low-fat diet is recommended with this.

39. Describe the three major uses for aspirin and aspirin-like products, such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen.
Aspirin is used as an analgesic (pain relief), an antipyretic (fever reducer), and an anti-inflammatory (arthritis treatment). Acetaminophen is an analgesic and antipyretic. Ibuprofen is an analgesic and anti-inflammatory

40. Describe the typical kinds of ingredients included in OTC cold remedies, and explain what each is for.
Antihistamine, such as chlorpheniramine maleate, for runny nose; sympathomimetic, such as phenylephrine or pseudoephedrine, for stuffy nose; analgesic-antipyretic, such as acetaminophen, for aches and fever; and dextromethorphan for cough.

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