-The management of parochial hospitals and the ill within them feel to the state.
-The English State recruited the hospital labor force from ranks of criminals, widows, and orphans
-Selecting those with upstanding characters as potential nurses
-Improving sanitary conditions for the sick and injured
-Providing classroom education and clinical teaching.
-Students staffed the hospital
-Students worked without pay in return for training which usually consisted of chores
-Hospitals profited by eliminating the need to pay for employees
-No formal classes were held; training was an outcome of work
-Worked along-side physicians in mobile Army services hospital during the Korean war, acquiring trauma care, which later helped reduced the mortality rate of the U.S.
-Replenished the nursing staff in military hospitals during World War I and II
Science- Body of knowledge unique to a particular subject
Nursing Theory- proposed ideas about what is involved in the process
-A nurse acts as a temporary proxy, meeting the client’s needs with knowledge and skills that neither the client nor family members can provide.
-Hospital Based Programs
-Associate Degree Programs
-Length of Program
-Reputation and success of graduates
-Current advances in technology make previous methods of practice obsolete
-Assuming responsibility for self learning demonstrates evidence of current competence
Caring Skills- Nursing interventions that restore or maintain a person’s health
Counseling Skills-Interventions that include communicating with clients Actively listening during exchanges of information, offering pertinent health teaching and providing emotional support.
Comforting Skills- Interventions that provide stability and security during a health related crisis.
2. Based on knowledge
5. Goal Directed
3. Test results
4. Information in current and past medical records
Focus- Completed throughout subsequent care. Repeated each shift or more often
Collects limited data
Adds depth to the initial data base
Collaborative- Psychological complications that require both nurse and physician prescribed interventions
2. Etiology (its cause)
3. Signs and symptoms
Goal is achievable in a few days
2. Computer generated
3. Based on agencies written standards or clinical pathways
4. Written by hand
Reviews if for appropriateness
Revises it according to changes in the clients condition
Nurse discusses with family the progress of client undergoing surgery
Matronly and plain looking
Subjective– Consistent info for description (how they feel)
Sister Callista Roy-Adaptation Theory
Virginia Henderson -Basic Needs Theory
Dorothea Orem- Self Care Theory
The nurse provides information on advanced directives that allows the client to identify this hers end of life decisions.
Sympathy- Feeling as emotionally distraught at the client
–Associate Degree Program
–Hospital Diploma Program
Growing Aging population
Aging program restricts number of students