Ch 1 and 2 Fundamental nursing skills and concepts

Active Listening
Demonstrating full attention to what is being said hearing both the content being communicated and the unspoken message

Activities of Daily Living
The acts that people normally do everyday

Advance Practice
Nurse practitioner, Nurse midwifery

Ability to perform an act skillfully

Assessment Skills
Acts that involve collecting data

Caring Skills
Nursing interventions that restore or maintains a persons health

Clinical Pathways
Standardized multi-disciplinary plans for a specific diagnosis or procedure that identify aspects of care to be performed during a designated length of stay

Comforting Skills
Interventions that provide stability and security during health related crisis.

Counseling Skills
Interventions that include communicating with clients actively listening during exchanges of information, offering pertinent health teaching, and providing emotional support

Able to assume non-nursing jobs, depending on the census or levels of clients acuity on any given day

Discharge Planning
Managing transitional needs and ensuring continuity

Intuitive awareness of what the clients is experiencing

Manage care practices
Cost-containment strategies used to plan and coordinate a clients care to avoid delays, unnecessary services, or overuse of expensive resources

Multicultural Diversity
Unique characteristics of an ethnic group

Nursing Skills
Activities unique to the practice of learning

Nursing Theory
Proposed ideas about what is involved process called nursing

Primary Care
The first health care worker to assess a person with a health need

Quality Assurance
Process of identifying and evaluating outcomes

Body of knowledge unique to a particular subject

Feeling as emotionally distraught as the client

Opinion, belief, or view that explains a process

Describe the factors that led to the demise of nursing in england before the time of florence nightingale
-Reports of high rates and complications among the war casualties
-The management of parochial hospitals and the ill within them feel to the state.
-The English State recruited the hospital labor force from ranks of criminals, widows, and orphans

Identify four reforms for which Florence Nightingale is responsible
-Training people for their future work
-Selecting those with upstanding characters as potential nurses
-Improving sanitary conditions for the sick and injured
-Providing classroom education and clinical teaching.

Describe at least five ways in which early U.S. training schools deviated from those established under the direction of Florence Nightingale.
-Any hospital rural, or urban, could establish a training hospital.
-Students staffed the hospital
-Students worked without pay in return for training which usually consisted of chores
-Hospitals profited by eliminating the need to pay for employees
-No formal classes were held; training was an outcome of work

List 3 ways that nurses used their skills in the early history of nursing in the United States
-They offered their services to fight yellow fever, typhoid, malaria, and dysentery during the spanish American War.
-Worked along-side physicians in mobile Army services hospital during the Korean war, acquiring trauma care, which later helped reduced the mortality rate of the U.S.
-Replenished the nursing staff in military hospitals during World War I and II

Explain How are, Science and Nursing theory have been incorporated into contemporary nursing practice
Art- Ability to perform an act skillfully
Science- Body of knowledge unique to a particular subject
Nursing Theory- proposed ideas about what is involved in the process

Discuss the evolution that has occurred in definitions of nursing
– Putting individuals in the best possible condition for nature to restore and presence health
-A nurse acts as a temporary proxy, meeting the client’s needs with knowledge and skills that neither the client nor family members can provide.

List four Types of educational programs that prepare students for beginning levels of nursing practice
-Practical/Vocational Nursing
-Registered Nurse
-Hospital Based Programs
-Associate Degree Programs

Identify at least 5 factors that influence a person’s choice of educational nursing programs
-Career goals
-Geographic location
-Costs involved
-Length of Program
-Reputation and success of graduates

State 3 reasons that support the need for continuing education in nursing
-No Basic programs provides all the knowledge and skills needed for a lifetime career.
-Current advances in technology make previous methods of practice obsolete
-Assuming responsibility for self learning demonstrates evidence of current competence

Discuss methods four skills that all nurses use in clinical practice
Assessment skills- Acts that involve collecting data
Caring Skills- Nursing interventions that restore or maintain a person’s health
Counseling Skills-Interventions that include communicating with clients Actively listening during exchanges of information, offering pertinent health teaching and providing emotional support.
Comforting Skills- Interventions that provide stability and security during a health related crisis.

Define the Nursing Process
An organized sequence of a problem solving stpe sused to identify and manage the health problems of clients

List the 5 steps in the nursing process
1. Assessment
2. Diagnosis
3. Planning
4. Implementation
5. Evaluation

Describe 6 characteristics of the nursing process
1. Within the legal scope of nursing
2. Based on knowledge
3. planned
4. Client-centered
5. Goal Directed
6. Prioritized

Identify four sources of assessment data
1. Client Family
2. Reports
3. Test results
4. Information in current and past medical records

Difference between a data base and focus assessment
Database- Obtained on admission, performed once, suggests possible problems
Focus- Completed throughout subsequent care. Repeated each shift or more often
Collects limited data
Adds depth to the initial data base

Distinguish between nursing diagnosis and collaborative problem
Nursing- Health issue that can be prevented, reduced, resolved, enhanced, through independent nursing measures
Collaborative- Psychological complications that require both nurse and physician prescribed interventions

Actual Diagnosis
Problems currently exist

Systematic collection of information

Collaborative Problems
Psychological complication whose treatment require both nurse and physician perscribed intervention

Critical Thinking
Process of objective reasoning; analyzing facts to reach a vivid conclusion

Data Base Assessment
Initial information about the client’s physical, emotional, social and spiritual health

Identification of health related problems

Process of determining whether a goal has been reached

Focus Assessment
Information that provides more details about specific problems

Expected or desired outcome

Carrying out a plan of care

Long term Goal
Desirable outcomes that takes weeks or months to accomplish

Nursing Diagnosis
Health problem that can be prevented, reduced, or resolved, through independent nursing measures

List 3 parts of a nursing diagnostic statement
1. Name of the health-related issue or problem as identified in the NANDA list
2. Etiology (its cause)
3. Signs and symptoms

Describe the rationale for setting priorities
Involves ranking from those that are most serious or immediate to those of lesser importance

Discuss the circumstances when short term and long term goals are appropriate
Developed from the problem
Clients centered
Goal is achievable in a few days

Identify four ways for documenting a plan of care
1. Standardized forms
2. Computer generated
3. Based on agencies written standards or clinical pathways
4. Written by hand

Describe the information that is documented in reference to the plan of care
Client’s medical record
Reviews if for appropriateness
Revises it according to changes in the clients condition

Discuss 3 outcomes that result from avaluation
What outcomes that should result from evaluation is what was discontinued, added, or changed.

Nursing Orders
Directions for a client’s care

Nursing Process
Organized sequence of problem solving steps; Assessment diagnosis planning, implementation and evaluation.

Objective Data
Facts that are observable and emasureable

Process of prioritizing nursing diagnoses and collaborative problems. Identifying measureable goals or outcomes, selecting appropriate interventions and documenting the plan for care.

Possible Diagnosis
Problem that may not be present, but more information is needed to rule out or confirm its existance

Potential diagnosis

Short term goals
Outcomes that can be met in a few days to a week

Objective data; information that is observable and measureable

Standards for care
Policies that ensure quality client care

Subjective data
INformation that only the client feels and can describe

Feeling as emotionally distraught as the client can identify

Syndrome Diagnosis
Clusters of problems that are present due to an event or situation

Wellness Diagnosis
Situation in which a healthy person obtains nursing assistance to maintain his or her health or perform of a higher level

What is the average length of LPN program?
12-18 months

The following nursing action is which type of nursing skill?
Nurse discusses with family the progress of client undergoing surgery
Comforting Skills

In 2002 the federal gov. passed what legislation to pass the nursing shortage.
The Nurse Reinvestment Act

Name the 4 criteria for nursing school in 1862
35-50 years old
Matronly and plain looking
Neat, orderly

Explain the difference between objective and subjective data and give an example
Objective- Measure and observable facts. (temperature)
Subjective– Consistent info for description (how they feel)

LPN provide direct patient care under the supervision of 3 whose

Name 4 of the theorist that we studied and the name of the theory that they created?
Florence Nightingale’s -Environmental Theory
Sister Callista Roy-Adaptation Theory
Virginia Henderson -Basic Needs Theory
Dorothea Orem- Self Care Theory

The Following Nursing Action is which type of nursing skill
The nurse provides information on advanced directives that allows the client to identify this hers end of life decisions.
Counseling Skills

An assessment completed by the RN that is lengthy and comprehensive
Data Base Assessment

Explain one advantage to an LPN program
Shorter and Economical

The protection, promotion, and optimization of health and prevention of illness and alleviation of suffering.
American Nursing Association

The science of unitary Human being Theory
Martha Rodgers

Who provided the nursing care in schism between Catholic and King
Criminals and Widows

What was the main reason why LPN Programs were developed?
All of the Registered Nurses were going into the Military, So other Agencies needed other types of the Nurses. WWII caused the need for more nurses

Which pathway or educational level of nursing provides the greatest amount of opportunities for Rn
Baccalaureate Program

Define Empathy how does it differ from Sympathy
Empathy- Awareness of what the clients is feeling
Sympathy- Feeling as emotionally distraught at the client

Which nursing degree is most essential for independent decision making
Baccalaureate Degree (BSN)

During which war did Florence Nightingale Perform Nursing
Crimean War

Name the theory written by Virginia Henderson
Basic Needs Theory

Assisting with the activities of daily living of which nursing skill
Caring Skills

Name the 3 pathways for becoming a RN
Baccalaureate Program
–Associate Degree Program
–Hospital Diploma Program

Give 2 Factors contributing to the Nursing Shortage
Retirement Rate of Nursing the exceeds their replacement
Growing Aging population
Aging program restricts number of students

Who assumed the role of nursing during the mIddle Ages
Religious Groups

Which Theory was written by Sister Callista Roy
Adaptation Theory

Name the Nursing skills that includes, interviewing and observing the client
Assessment Skills

The Bureau of labor and statistics predicts how many positions for registered Nurses
400,000 positions

A baccalaureate program takes how many years to complete
4 years

Name one common place to complete a practical nursing program
–Career Center,
Vocational School,
Community Colleges

Florence Nightingale worked to improve condition during the war with donated funds, what did she do next to improve nursing?
Started Nursing School

Who wrote the Environmental Theory
Florence Nightengale

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