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RISK FACTORS:
* Human papilloma virus infection
* Smoking
* Immunosuppression
* Chlamydia infection
* Diet
* Oral contraceptives (birth control pills)
* Intrauterine device use
* Multiple full-term pregnancies
* Young age at the first full-term pregnancy
* Poverty
* Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
* Family history of cervical cancer
PREVENTION
Testing (screening)
* Regular Pap test
* Pelvic exam
* Condoms and HPV
* Don’t smoke
* Get vaccinated
Gardasil, Cervarix
Guidelines for early detection:
All women should begin cervical testing at age 21.
Age 30 (Pap test + HPV test q 5 years) until age 65.
High risk of cervical cancer: need to be screened more often and follow the recommendations of their doctors. Women underwent Total hysterectomy: should stop screening Women who have been vaccinated against HPV should still follow these guidelines Accurate pap tests

Not on menstrual period.
No douche
No sexual intercourse
Pap test results
* Conventional cytology
* Liquid-based cytology
Bethesda System
The general categories are:
Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy,
Epithelial cell abnormalities, and
Other malignant neoplasms.
* Squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs)
* Squamous cell carcinoma
* Adenocarcinoma
* Atypical glandular cells
* Atypical squamous cells
The HPV DNA test
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF CERVICAL CANCER:
* Women with early cervical cancers and pre-cancers usually have no symptoms. * Symptoms often do not begin until the cancer becomes invasive and grows into nearby tissue. * Abnormal vaginal bleeding

* Menopausal bleeding
* Spotting between periods
* longer or heavier than usual
* Bleeding after douching or after a pelvic exam may also occur. * Vaginal discharges
* Dyspareunia
ASSESSEMNT:
* Medical history and physical exam
* Colposcopy
* Cervical biopsies
* Colposcopic biopsy
* Endocervical curettage
* Cone biopsy
* LEEP
* Cold knife cone biopsy
* biopsy results are reported: different from the Bethesda System – CIN1, CIN2, CIN3
– Cystoscopy, proctoscopy, and examination under anesthesia
IMAGING STUDIES:
* Chest x-ray
* Computed tomography
* CT-guided needle biopsy Magnetic resonance imaging
* Intravenous urography
* Positron emission tomography
SURGERY
* CRYOSURGERY
* LASER SURGERY
* CONIZATION
* HYSTERECTOMY
abdominal hysterectomy
vaginal hysterectomy
laparoscopic hysterectomy
robotic-assisted surgery
* RADICAL HYSTERECTOMY
* TRACHELECTOMY
* PELVIC EXENTERATION
* PELVIC LYMPH NODE DISSECTION
RADIATION THERAPY
* External beam radiation therapy
* 6 to 7 weeks
* Cisplatin
* Brachytherapy
* tandem and ovoid treatment
* 2 main types of treatment (low-dose rate and high-dose rate brachytherapy) * Side effects:
Tiredness
upset stomach
loose bowels
nausea and vomiting
anemia
leukopenia
* Feeling sunburned
ANTI-CANCER DRUGS
* cisplatin, paclitaxel (Taxol®),
* topotecan, ifosfamide (Ifex®), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). * side effects of chemotherapy might include:
Nausea and vomiting
Loss of appetite
Loss of hair
Mouth sores
An increased chance of infection Bleeding or bruising after minor cuts or injuries SOB, Fatigue
Chemoradiation
* CONCURRENT CHEMORADIATION
* cisplatin, 5FU
Making healthier choices
* Eating better
* Rest, fatigue, and exercise.

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy I chose to do my research paper on Cervical Cancer. I did this because this is the disease that …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Cervical cancer is one of the most preventable cancers, yet still remains the world’s third leading cancer killer in …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy What is cervical cancer? [Writing suggestion: Unless in a quote or a title, avoid rhetorical questions in academic writing. …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy             Prior to the use of the Pap smear test the incidence of cervical cancer was much higher than …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy 75,000 or more of our countrywomen will die from this disease every year. Hence India accounts for 26. 7% …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display ”uncontrolled growth” …

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