Staphylococcus and streptococcus bacteria are the most common causes of cellulitis. The skin normally has many types of bacteria living on it. When there is a break in the skin, however, bacteria can enter the body and cause infection and inflammation. The skin tissues in the infected area become red, hot, irritated, and painful. Risk factors for cellulitis include: • Cracks or peeling skin between the toes • History of peripheral vascular disease.
• Injury or trauma with a break in the skin (skin wounds) • Insect bites and stings, animal bites, or human bites • Ulcers from diabetes or a blockage in the blood supply (ischemia) • Use of corticosteroid medications or medications that suppress the immune system • Wound from a recent surgery Staphylococcus and streptococcus bacteria are the most common causes of cellulitis. The skin normally has many types of bacteria living on it. When there is a break in the skin, however, bacteria can enter the body and cause infection and inflammation. The skin tissues in the infected area become red, hot, irritated, and painful.
Risk factors for cellulitis include: • Cracks or peeling skin between the toes • History of peripheral vascular disease • Injury or trauma with a break in the skin (skin wounds) • Insect bites and stings, animal bites, or human bites • Ulcers from diabetes or a blockage in the blood supply (ischemia) • Use of corticosteroid medications or medications that suppress the immune system • Wound from a recent surgery Exams and Tests During a physical examination, the doctor may find: • Redness, warmth, and swelling of the skin • Swelling and drainage if the infection is around a skin wound • Swollen glands (lymph nodes) near the cellulitis.
Your health care provider may mark the edges of the redness with a pen, to see if the redness goes past the marked border over the next several days. Tests that may be used: • Blood culture • Complete blood count (CBC) Treatment Cellulitis treatment may require a hospital stay if: • You are very sick (very high temperature, blood pressure problems, nausea and vomiting that does not go away) • You have been on antibiotics and the infection is getting worse • Your immune system is not working well (due to cancer, HIV) • You have an infection around your eyes.
Most of the time, treatment with oral antibiotics and close follow-up is enough. Treatment is focused on controlling the infection and preventing complications. You may receive antibiotics to control the infection, and analgesics to control pain. Raise the infected area higher than your heart to reduce swelling. Rest until your symptoms improve. Outlook (Prognosis) It is possible to be cured with 7 – 10 days of treatment. Cellulitis may be more severe in people with chronic diseases and those who are more prone to infection because their immune system is not working properly (immunosuppressed).
People with fungal infections of the feet may have cellulitis that keeps coming back. The cracks in the skin offer an opening for bacteria to get inside. Possible Complications • Bone infection (osteomyelitis) • Inflammation of the lymph vessels (lymphangitis) • Meningitis (if cellulitis is on the face) • Sepsis, shock • Tissue death (gangrene) When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: • You have symptoms of cellulitis.
• You are being treated for cellulitis and you develop new symptoms, such as persistent fever, drowsiness, lethargy, blistering over the cellulitis, or red streaks that spread Seek medical attention immediately if the cellulitis is on your face. Prevention Protect your skin by: • Keeping your skin moist with lotions or ointments to prevent cracking • Wearing shoes that fit well and provide enough room for your feet • Learning how to trim your nails to avoid harming the skin around them • Wearing appropriate protective equipment when participating in work or sports Whenever you have a break in the skin:
• Clean the break carefully with soap and water • Cover with a bandage and change it every day until a scab forms • Watch for redness, pain, drainage, or other signs of infection Alternative Names Skin infection – bacterial Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder What is PTSD? Post-traumatic stress disorder, which is commonly referred to as PTSD, is a condition which some people develop after they experience a very traumatic, sometimes life threatening, event.
For instance, a person might develop PTSD after observing another person or group of people being seriously injured or killed. Natural disasters and wars are likely to cause some of its victims to experience post-traumatic stress disorder. How soon does post-traumatic stress disorder develop? In some people PTSD develops immediately after they experience the unusually traumatic event. However, in other people, signs of the disorder do not develop until several weeks, months, or even years after the event.
What characteristics are associated with post-traumatic stress disorder? PTSD develops when a person witnesses or experiences a traumatic event and later experiences some of the following for a prolonged period of time: • Relives the traumatic event by thinking or dreaming about it frequently • Is unsettled or distressed in other areas of his/her life such as in school, at work, or in personal relationships • Avoids any situation that might cause his/her to relive the trauma • Demonstrates a certain amount of generalized emotional numbness.
• Shows a heightened sense of being on guard PTSD victims may have such additional emotional manifestations as a sense of hopelessness, a sense of fear, insomnia, irritability, and/or difficulty in concentrating. Children with PTSD may show unexplained, emotional distress, or they might complain of pain. Examples of traumatic events known to lead to PTSD include: • Military combat • Violent criminal attacks • Sexual assaults • Serious accidents • Life threatening natural disasters At what age does post-traumatic stress disorder appear? PTSD can occur at any age.
|advertisement | |[pic][pic] | How often is post-traumatic stress disorder seen in our society? PTSD is very common in the United States. Some studies report that more than ten percent (10%) of the population will suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder at some point in their lives. How is post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosed? In adults, PTSD is usually diagnosed when they seek professional help because they are suffering, and their emotional state is having a negative impact on their schoolwork, on their job, or in their social relationships.
Children may be brought in for evaluation because of unexpected behavior changes or unexplained physical problems. How is post-traumatic stress disorder treated? Individual or group therapy, in addition to some medications, may be used in the treatment of PTSD. Therapy helps those with post-traumatic stress disorder work through the traumatic event that caused the condition. With the help of the therapist, the person with PTSD can gently examine and review the traumatic events of the past and learn to conquer his/her feelings of anxiety.
Certain antidepressant medications and mild tranquilizers are sometimes prescribed to help lessen some of the painful symptoms associated with PTSD. What happens to someone with post-traumatic stress disorder? The course of PTSD is quite variable. With adequate treatment, about one-third of the people with PTSD will recover within a few months. Some of these people have no further problems. Many people take longer, sometimes a year or more, to recover from PTSD.
Despite treatment, other people continue to have mild to moderate symptoms for a more prolonged period of time. What can people do if they need help? If you, a friend, or a family member would like more information and you have a therapist or a physician, please discuss your concerns with that person. Cardiogenic shock Cardiogenic shock is based upon an inadequate circulation of blood due to primary failure of the ventricles of the heart to function effectively.  .
Since this is a category of shock there is insufficient perfusion of tissue (i.e. the heart) to meet the required demand for oxygen and nutrients. This leads to cell death from oxygen starvation (hypoxia) and nutrient starvation (eg hypoglycemia).  Because of this it may lead to cardiac arrest (or circulatory arrest) which is an acute cessation of cardiac pump function.  Cardiogenic shock is defined by sustained hypotension with tissue hypoperfusion despite adequate left ventricular filling pressure. Signs of tissue hypoperfusion include oliguria.