Causes of Communicable Diseases

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Hillendale Health describes a communicable disease as one that is passed from human to human through direct or indirect contact. Common ones include chicken pox, ringworm, influenza, scabies, lice, pinkeye and hepatitis. Prevention includes good hygiene skills, safe sex and using reputable sources for tattoos, piercing and blood transfusions. There are several things that cause a communicable disease and knowing the risk can help a person take measures to protect themselves and those they come into contact with. Bodily Fluid Exchange.

According to the Oregon Department of Health, communicable diseases can be spread through unprotected sex, sharing needles for drug use, blood transfusions, tattoos or piercings and bites from a child. Pregnant women can pass a disease to their children as well. Prevention of spreading communicable diseases through bodily fluids is achieved through hand washing, safe sex and using clean needles for drug use and tattoos and piercings. The most common communicable diseases spread through bodily fluids are HIV and Hepatitis B, C and D. Direct/Indirect Contact.

Read this article – Lifestyle Diseases

Contact with people suffering from a communicable disease, either directly or indirectly can cause the spread of that disease. Direct contact includes skin to skin, which can spread ringworm and scabies. Indirect contact refers to germs being spread through coughing, sneezing or spitting onto a person who then transfers the germs to their mouth, nose or eyes. The Oregon Department of Health says that good prevention practices include frequent hand washing, keeping hands off the face, and isolating a person who has a communicable disease.

The most common diseases that are spread through contact are the common cold, influenza and whooping cough. Airborne Germs Airborne germs are spread by being suspended in the air by the sick individual through a cough or sneeze and then inhaled by another person. The most common communicable diseases that are transmitted through airborne germs are tuberculosis, measles and chicken pox. Prevention methods include vaccinations and isolating a person who is ill to prevent them from spreading the disease to another person.

TREATMENT OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

Communicable diseases are spread from person to person via pathogens like bacteria, viruses and fungi. They can be common, short-lived disease like throat colds or chronic diseases like malaria and herpes. The form of treatment necessary for communicable disease depends on both the source and symptoms of the disease. However, treatment usually involves some form of rest, recuperation, medication or vaccine. Common There are numerous common communicable diseases, such as throat colds and the flu. They often produce symptoms like sore throat, runny nose, coughing, sneezing, headache, fever and nausea.

These can typically be treated with adequate rest and over-the-counter medication. Medication for common communicable diseases may include pain relievers like Tylenol as well as nasal decongestants, cough syrups, anti-nausea pills and throat drops. Common communicable diseases usually dissipate over the course of a few days or weeks. Chronic Chronic communicable diseases are severe and not usually spread from person to person via airborne pathogens. They may be spread via parasites, sexual contact or transmission of bodily fluids like blood.

Unlike throat colds or other common illnesses, chronic communicable diseases may last months or even a lifetime. Examples of chronic communicable disease include malaria, Lyme disease, diphtheria and hepatitis. Treatment for chronic communicable diseases usually involves some form of hospitalization, intravenous antibiotics, prescription medication and intensive care. Vaccines One effective way to treat a communicable disease is by receiving a vaccine before your body becomes infected. Vaccines work by infecting your body with a weakened strain of the actual disease. Your body then produces antibodies to fight the disease.

Antibodies remain in the system after the weakened strain is gone and protect the body from later infections. Certain vaccines need only to be administered once, such as vaccines for mumps, measles, whooping cough and polio. Others, like the flu vaccine, should be taken annually. PRECAUTIONS OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE Communicable disease is caused by pathogenic organism which can be easily transmitted from one person to another person, either directly or indirectly. There are different kinds of communicable disease, so the precaution is also different but their are some common precaution which are useful for every communicable disease.

  1. To be healthy and avoid every kind of disease, washing hands is the most important thing. Wash your hand with soap and water before and after doing activities and touching things which seems contaminated. And if you forgot to wash your hands or couldn’t find any resources of hand washing for eg; if you are walking in the street and have to do something but you couldn’t wash your hand than don’t touch your eyes, nose, mouth and ear with the hand. Those areas can be easily infectious with germs.
  2. Try to avoid or limit eating outside. As everybody don’t have time to make food and eat at home daily so if you are eating outside than eat food which are fresh and contains all the nutrients in sufficient amount and less amount of fat or cholesterol.
  3. Try to avoid or limit crowd. Airway disease can be easily transmitted from crowd. If someone is ill in the family than strictly avoid using items used by the family member like towel, linens, cloths, utensils, etc.
  4. Make sure your child had taken all the immunization and if you felt he/she is ill than immediately contact physician. Remember don’t take chance by keeping your child for home observation.

CAUSES OF NON – COMUNICABLE DISESASE

Risk factors such as a person’s background; lifestyle and environment are known to increase the likelihood of certain non-communicable diseases. They include age, sex, genetics, exposure to air pollution, and behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity which can lead to hypertension and obesity, in turn leading to increased risk of many NCDs. [4] Most NCDs are considered preventable because they are caused by modifiable risk factors.

The WHO’s World Health Report 2002 identified five important risk factors for non-communicable disease in the top ten leading risks to health. These are raised blood pressure, raised cholesterol, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and overweight. [5] Other factors associated with higher risk of NCDs include a person’s economic and social conditions, also known as the “social determinants of health. ” It has been estimated that if the primary risk factors were eliminated, 80% of the cases of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes and 40% of cancers could be prevented.

Interventions targeting the main risk factors could have a significant impact on reducing the burden of disease worldwide. Efforts focused on better diet and increased physical activity have been shown to control the prevalence of NCDs. [3]

TREATMENT OF NON – COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

More and more people are turning to exercise as a means of achieving long-term health. The World Health Organization has endorsed this concept. The best available evidence suggests that an employee fitness programme will result in decreased health-care costs, decreased absenteeism and increased productivity for the employer. Regular physical activity is also associated with lower mortality rates.

Appropriate physical activity may be a valuable tool in therapeutic regimens for the control and amelioration (rehabilitation) of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, hypertension, congenital heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders, end-stage renal disease, stress, anxiety and depression, etc.

Regular physical activity, independent of other factors, reduces the probability of coronary artery disease and early death. Patients with risk factors for coronary artery disease need more intensive preexercise evaluation than those not a risk, and those with known or suspected cardiovascular disease need the most intensive evaluation and follow-up. Participation in vigorous sports activities, such as jogging, swimming, tennis, etc. , helps to protect against the development of hypertension, even when other predisposing factors are present.

Several studies have been conducted on the use of exercise in the treatment of hypertension. Physical exercise also contributes to the control of body weight. Consideration of the metabolic abnormalities in patients with type II (adult onset) diabetes indicates that they would make excellent candidates for an exercise programme. Osteoporosis is an important health problem for the elderly. The best treatment available at present is prevention, and a high level of physical activity throughout life can result in a larger skeletal mass during old age.

PRECAUTIONS OF NON – COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

Non communicable diseases do not occurred by an infection. Typically they are developed due to heredity, surroundings and behavior of an individual. Many of these diseases can be prevented to some extent. Individuals can prevent these diseases by having proper diet and exercise routines. They cannot be transferred from one human to another. Factors that can cause these diseases include abnormalities in genes, heredity problem, lifestyle and environment. Instructions Step 1 : Know the history of your family’s health. Many non communicable diseases are caused due to heredity.

While development of these diseases is not guaranteed by your family’s health history, it will just tell you to focus on what sort of the diseases. For example, if members of four immediate families suffer from cancer, you must take precaution to prevent this non communicable disease. If you are not aware with the history of your family’s health, ask your parents, your siblings or ask your other close family and know what type of non communicable diseases you are prone to. Step 2 You must take medical screenings regularly for non communicable diseases.

One must go for overall health screening once in a year as recommended by experts. For example, as recommended by the American College of the Physicians, all women when they attain an age of 50years must receive a yearly mammogram. However, women with high risk of breast cancer due to their family health history must receive mammograms at an age of 40. D. A Berry, conducted cancer study in 2005 stated that between 29 and 64 percent of a sharp drop in women breast cancer deaths in between 1991 and 2001 were not indirectly related to mammograms and the screenings received once a year.

Non communicable diseases can also be prevented by many other medical screenings. Heart screenings, cholesterol, a high blood pressure and many other medical screenings helped in saving the lives and it is an important way to avoid deaths that occur because of non-communicable diseases by the help of early detection. Step 3 Find any non communicable diseases which you feel you’re most at most risk for. It is most important to learn to prevent specific non communicable diseases which have made you at high risk which can be due to your lifestyle, your surroundings etc.

By having information, you can know many ways to prevent certain non communicable diseases. Non communicable diseases which include heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer are research in one place named as Harvard Medicine. It allows anyone to find conditions, causes, preventions tat can work for an individual and its website is –hms. harvard. edu/hms/research. asp. Step 4 Changes in diet can prove beneficial for your health and it may also help to prevent non communicable diseases. Massive differences can also be made even by small changes.

For example, increasing in intake of daily fruits and vegetables can significantly reduce higher risk for cancer, heart disease, stroke and other medical conditions. Step 5 You must avoid things which raise risk factors for certain non communicable diseases. If you smoke cigarettes every day you are at higher risk for cancer. Cancer. Having alcohol in excess can also higher your risk of these diseases. In order to prevent non communicable diseases you must take out elements from your life which increases the risk of non communicable diseases.

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