Aas well as human bodies and other living organisms such as plants and animals. Bacteria multiplies by its self to progress and spread. Unlike other infections such as viruses, fungi or parasites bacteria is not always harmful in fact in many cases bacteria can be useful to the living organisms,habitats or plants that it infects. Viruses are a small infectious agent that can only multiply inside the cells of living organisms although unlike bacteria, fungi and parasites viruses are not living organisms.
Viruses can infect any living organism such as humans, plants and animals. Viruses multiply by spreading from organism to organism for example viruses can be spread from human to human by coughing or sneezing. Fungi a fungi is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms this means that each of the cells contain membranes. Fungi can be identified through mushrooms, toadstools and yeast. Common yeast infections that are found within the human body are infections such as thrush which can be overcome by a course of anti-biotics.
Parasites are small organisms which depend on other living organisms to survive such as headlice depend on the blood from humans in order to survive and reproduce. Bacteria and viruses could both be parasites. 2) identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria,fungi,viruses and parasites. bacteria| Fungi| viruses| Parasites| mrsa ear infections gonorrhoea pneumonia TB whooping cough| thrush ring worm athletes foot| aids HIV colds chickenpox warts | headlice fleas diahreha malaria | 3) Describe what is meant by infection and colonisation.
Infection is a word which is used to describe when organism’s bodily tissues are damaged or infected by organisms multiplying and causing harm to the tissue by the toxins that they produce or the damage they cause. Infections can be caused by parasites, viruses and fungi. Colonisation is a word used to describe when a infection is found within the body that doesn’t cause irritation or have any signs or symptoms. it means that bacteria is present on the surface for example skin, mouth, intestines or airway. 4) Explain what is meant by the term systemic infection and localised infection. Systemic infection.
A systemic infection is the result of a virus or can occur when bacteria enters the body through infection, the bloodstream is the most effected characteristic by this infection as a result of this the symptoms spread to the whole of the body. When the infection is spread throughout the body pathogen is passed through the body, which is anything that can cause a disease, humans come into contact with pathogens on a daily basis and in most cases the immune systems are strong enough to fight pathogens off. When the pathogen is passed through the body bacterial toxins are produced which is the reason for systemic infections.
The most common type of these infections are colds and flu’s. When a person is suffering from a systemic infection they will more than likely experience the feeling of aches, nausea and weakness. Localised infection A local infection is a infection which only effects only one part of the body and occurs on the outer surface of the body which as a result of this means that the infection does not enter the bloodstream . Localised infections could be only minor infections such as a cut on the knee. 5) Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of a infection.
Poor practice can lead to the spread and cause of infections. Everybody on a daily basis is open to catch and spread infections, this is by taking part in poor practice. Poor practice could be poor hygiene which means -not washing your hands after toileting -not wearing PPE -poor personal hygiene performing poor practice can cause further problems for vulnerable people such a young children, pregnant women or old people this is because their immune systems are fairly weak and therefore their body finds it much harder to fight off infections. Outcome 2 -understand the transmission of infections.
1) Explain the conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms. Micro-organisms require specific substances and suppliments in order to be able to grow and multiply these can include the need of mineral elements which could be the soil or compose in which they live within or the water in which they require.
They also require certain growth factors in order to be able to grow and multiply such as temperatures, for every different microorganism which requires a different temperatire in order to grown and multiply there is a different name (detailed below) psychrophiles- these type of micro-organisms require cold temperatures which can range from -5 degree’s to 15 degree’s , due to these temperatrure requirments these micro organisms are often found in cold places such as the artic. mesophiles- these type of microorganisms require moderate temperatures which can range between 25 degree’s and 45 degree’s and these micro organisms are commonly found in and on the body.
Thermophiles- these type of micro organisms grow and multiply in the heat in temperatures between 45 and 70 degrees, and are commonly found in compst heaps. hypertherophiles- these micro organisms require extreme heat in order to be able to grow and multiply, such are temperatures from 70 degrees to 110 degrees and are often found in vents below the sea . Microorganisms also have other requirments in which they need to have to grow and produce which are oxegen and nutritional requirments such as water, enviroment and energy. 2) Explain the ways an infective agent might enter the body.
There are four main ways in which infective agents may enter the body these are: 1- Infective agents can passed through the mouth and down to into the lungs, which is how infections such as coughs,cold, and other common airbourne are contracted. 2-Infective agents can also enter the body through cuts and wounds on the skin, although the skins main job is to act as a barrier agaisnt any infective agent that may come into contact with skin, often anything can goes directly into the wound or cut then provides a entry for infective agents to enter the body this is when infection sets in.
3- Another way that infective agents can enter the body in through digesting food or drink. This can be as a direct result of uncooked food or out of date drinks, which often results people feeling ill and experiencing stomach pains, this type of infective agent can pass through out the body when a person vomits or experiences diarrhea. 4-The last way that infective agents can enter the body is through the urinary and reproductive systems. This means the infective agent can remain as a localized infection or may be a systemic infection which means that it enters the blood stream within the body.
These types of infective agents are usually sexually transmitted infections or diseases such as HIV or AIDS which are carried in bodily fluids. 3) identify common sources of infection Souces of infection can be split into two different groups, these two groups can be identified as exogenous, which means the micro organisms have developed outside of the body and worked thier way into the body and edogenous which means an infection which has started within the body.
Enviroments also play a huge part in the souce of infection, hospital enviroments can be one of the enviroments that souce infections as they are built to accomadate people who are ill,people who may have infections and people who are vulnerable for example elderly people and young children or people who have had surgery and therfore have open wounds. Staff within the hospital can also be identified as a souce of infection this is through thier unfiroms and equipment that they use.
Uniforms can be contaminated if staff do not wear PPE (personal pretective equipment) or do not wear it correctly to do medical procedures, to treat patients who are in isolation due to having infection, through not changing aprons,gloves,googles or masks at appropriate times. Hospital enviroments can also be a souce of infection for example, unclean bedrails, unclean tables and bed sheets this is because when patients are discharged from hospital and othedr patients are admitted the previous micro organisms can grow and multiply and therefore can be passed on to the next person.
4) explain how infections agents can be transmitted in a person. Infective agents can easily be spread across from person to person. The transmission of infections can happen in many different ways. Respiritory infections are commonly spread through people sneezing, coughing and kissing whereas gastronestinal infections are acquired though food and water being contaminated. Bodily fluids are also an infectious agent and this is how sexually infections can be passed from person to person as a result of sexual activity.
Some infections can be spread more easily from simply passing contamination objects from person to person or needle stick injuries. 5)Identify the key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur. There are many factors that make infections more likely to occure some of the factors can be the age or mobility of a person for example young children or older people who have less of a immune system to fight off infection.
People who have surgery and have open wounds are also more likely to contract an infection this is because the infections done have the skin as a barrier and therefore it is much more easy for the infection to penetrate the body. The enviroment can also be a key factor for infections to occur because unhygenic conditions allow micro organisims to grow and multiply which can contaminate anything that the micro-organisms grow on, and therfore put every person who comes into contact with these areas or items at risk.