1. Understand the causes of Infection 1. 1Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites Bacteria come in 3 main shapes; spherical which are known as cocci, rod shaped which are known as bacilli or vibrio, spiral which is known as spirilla or spirochetes. Bacteria is found in everything for e. g. soil, water, animals, plants, radioactive waste. The only place they aren’t found is where humans have sterilised. They can cause illnesses like tuberculosis, tonsillitis, and laryngitis and food poisoning Virus is a toxin or poison.
It is a microscopic organism consisting of genetic material. They cannot reproduce without a host cell. When it gets this host cell, it takes over its functions. The cells then continue to reproduce, and reproduces more viral protein. Several human diseases are caused by viruses which include:- smallpox, measles, the common cold, chickenpox, hepatitis, HIV, cold sores, shingles to name but a few. Viruses can spread from person to person, and by exchange of salvia, coughing, sneezing. Fungi are skin infections caused by dermatophytes and yeasts, which are groups of fungi that are normally harmless.
When these grow excessively, it causes symptoms and usually affects your skin because they live of keratin. The different fungi infections are:- athletes foot which is itchy flaky red skin, nail infections which can discolour or make the nail crumbly and the thin thicker, ringworm of the groin which can be passed person to person by direct contact and ringworm of the body which is like a red ring rash shape which is a contagious and caught by direct contact. There are also other fungi’s like thrush, yeast infection.
Fungi infections can also be caused by antibiotics, pregnant, poorly controlled diabetes, weak immune system. A parasite lives in close relationship another organism, its host and it causes harm. Viruses are common parasites. Parasites has to be in its host to live, grow and multiply. A common parasite is a hookworm where it is possible for humans or their pets to get. Hookworms attach themselves to the lining of the small intestine, and cause diseases, and malnutrition as well. Some other common parasites include:- malaria, swimmers itch. 1.
2Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites Bacterial Infectious Disease:- Antrax, Bacterial meningitis, Gonorrhea, Plague, MRSA Infection, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Typhus, Q fever, Typhoid fever Fungi Infectious Disease:- Aspergillious, Blastomycosis, Tinea pedis, Parasite Infectious Disease:- Scabies, Myiasis, Free living infection, Taeniasis Viral Infectious Disease:- AIDS, Hand foot and mouth disease, Chickenpox, Mumps, Smallpox, Yellow fever. 1. 3Describe what is meant by “infection” and “colonisation”.
Colonisation is when a bacterial strain invades a region of your body and starts to rapidly divide and cause the bodies immune system to breakdown. Infection is similar to colonisation but only used for opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in a body part or tissue 1. 4Explain what is meant by “systemic infection” and “localised infection” Localised infection is an infection that is limited to a specific body part or region Systemic infection is an infection that is the opposite to localised infection. It is when the pathogen is distributed throughout the whole body.
1. 5Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection Poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection can include:- ? No hand washing or not doing it properly, ?Not wearing the right protective equipment, ?Not preparing food properly or to adequate standards or not serving correctly, ? Personal hygiene is not to high standards or cleanliness of the environment, ? Re-using equipment that should be sterilised or thrown away, ? Not adhering to health and safety procedures, ?Not cooking or defrosting food properly?
Not covering your nose or mouth when you sneeze and using appropriate equipment like hand gels, washing, paper towels, 2. Understand the transmission of infection 2. 1Explain the conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms Nutrients:- micro-organisms need food to survive and they like high protein foodto survive. E. g. fis, poultry Temperature:- micro-organisms need warmth and grown best at 20-40c Moisture/Humidity:- needs moisture to multiply Gases:- need air to multiply, though some can without. Time:- A single M. O becomes 2 every 20minutes.
2. 2Explain the ways an infective agent might enter the body Infective agent might enter the body through the nose, mouth, eyes, cuts/sores. They can also be inhaled, absorbed, ingestion, inoculation or allergic reaction 2. 3Identify common sources of infection Common sources can be present on people, in air, temperature, carried by pets, insects or animals. Common causes of infections are:- ?A staph infection ?Urinary tract infection ?Inner ear infection ?Kidney infection ?Candida infection 2. 4Explain how infective agents can be transmitted to a person.
They can be transmitted through contact with an infected or contaminated object (directly and indirectly) Directly is person to person, and indirectly is contact through other sources e. g. water, air, dust, pets, animals, insects and the food chain. 2. 5Identify the key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur Infection will occur:- ?Open wounds/cuts/sores ?People with low/weak immune systems ?Very young children/babies or elderly people ?If person is already sick ?Proximity to others ?Dirty or contaminated areas/items ?Contact with body fluids ?Poor practises.