Carl Linnaeus – Biology

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What is Science?
– a dynamic, cumulative system of verifiable facts, concepts (theories, laws, and principles) and methods – could be used to explain or predict a phenomenon
What is Biology?
– scientific study of living organisms

How to conduct a Scientific Study?

What is Botany?
– scientific study of plant life
Botanist – person who studies Botany

Historical Development of Botany

a. Early Human Culture
– folk taxonomy (toxicity: edible or not, lumber, decorate) Babylonians
– cultivation of crops
Egyptians
– papyrus, decoration
Greek & Romans
– Hyacinthos and Narcissos (emotional values-gentleness), decoration, medicine b. First Scientific Description
– plants’ nature and function
Empedocles from Agrient (Akragas)
– four immortal elements (WEFA)
– plants have reason, soul & common senxe
Aristotle
– plants have souls
– ingestion through roots; growth
– posses both genders
Theophrastus (student of Aristotle)
– established the first botanical garden
– De Historia Plantarum & De Causis Plantarum
– Father of Botany
c. Roman Reign
Dioscorides Pedanius
– superior authority in pharmacology
– illustrations of medicinal plants
Plinius Secundus “Pliny the Elder”
– published works: natural history of plants
– utility of plants
d. Dark Ages
– scientific activities became scarce
– Arabians and Moslems preserved some files
e. Renaissance
– establishment of universities (Europe)
– botanical researches for medicine
– several publications (letterpress)
f. 17th & 18th Century
– specialization in Science
Carl Von Linne (Carolus Linnaeus)
– binary nomenclature
– birth of Taxonomy
– Father of Taxonomy
– Father of Modern Botany
g. 19th Century

Fields of Botany

Plant Morphology – forms
Plant Cytology – cells
Plant Anatomy – internal parts
Plant Systematics & – classification based
Taxonomy – naming
Plant Embryology – early development
Plant Physiology – functions and processes
Plant Genetics – hereditary traits
Ecology – relationship of plants and environment
Palynology – pollen grain
Plant Geography – distribution of plants in diff. places
Plant Molecular Biology – molecular level
Economic Botany – use of plants commercially
Paleobotany – plant fossils
Phycology – algae
Horticulture – ornamental plants
Plant Pathology – diseases

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