Cardiovascular Pharmacology Test

Metabolism of organic nitrates releases which molecule?
nitric oxide

What is the pathophysiological mechanism of neurogenic shock?
CNS signals for vasoconstriction are not being sent or received

Kale is rich in Vitamin K and can potentially reduce the efficacy of which drug?

The action of digoxin is to
Increase cardiac force of contraction

Which of the following is true of heart failure?
Usually the left side is affected first during heart failure

Which of the following is true regarding treatment decisions for hypertension?
Absolute cardiovascular risk should be assessed for everyone with mild hypertension

Which of the following actions is the first priority of care for a patient showing signs and symptoms of myocardial infarction?
Administer sublingual nitroglycerin

Which of the following conditions is associated with chest pain that occurs as a result of physical exertion?
Stable Angina

Which of the following is true about the role of antithrombin drugs in the treatment of coronary ischaemic syndromes?
Heparin prevents coagulation by inhibiting antithrombin III

A patient diagnosed with mild heart failure is prescribed hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide). The healthcare provider should determine the teaching about the medication has been successful if the patient makes which of these statements?
I should watch out for symptoms of gout

Which of the following is true about the atherosclerotic plaque?
The accumulated macrophages within a plaque turn into foam cells.

Which of the following describes Grade 1 (mild) hypertension:
A systolic blood pressure of 140-159 mmHg and a diastolic blood pressure of 90-99 mmHg

Which molecule can interfere with both platelet activation and expression of GpIIb/IIa receptors?

A patient is prescribed a new medication for the treatment of hypertension. While supine, the patient s blood pressure is 115/70 mmHg and the heart rate is 80/minute. The healthcare provider assesses the patient when the patient changes to a sitting position. Which of the following indicates the patient is experiencing orthostatic hypotension?
BP 88/62, HR 100 (The criteria for Orthostatic hypotension are a decrease in Systolic blood pressure of at least 20 mmHg, or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of at least 10 mmHg within three minutes of assuming an upright position.)

Which of the following is not an effect of organic nitrates on the cardiovascular system?
coronary steal

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is characterised by
Usually of familial origin

Which of the following can reduce sympathetic activity in the setting of acute coronary syndrome?
Morphine (Morphine can reduce sympathetic activity in acute coronary syndrome. Please review the section on Management of Acute Coronary Syndrome.)

Which of the following is TRUE about antithrombins?
Heparins can cause hypoaldosteronism.

Which of the following tests would provide biochemical evidence of myocardial necrosis? (1) Troponin, (2) Creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB), (3) Cholesterol, (4) HDL.
(1) Troponin, (2) Creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB)

Left heart failure
leads to pulmonary oedema

Which of the following can induce production of antibodies?

Which of the following blood tests is most indicative of cardiac damage?
Troponin I (The strongest indication of cardiac damage is Troponin I, a cardiac enzyme which is released into the blood stream when damage to the myocardium occurs)

Which is/are the common seen side effect/s of organic nitrates?
postural hypotension

Which of the following factors is related to hypertension?
Increased afterload

A patient has been admitted to the cardiac unit with a diagnosis of left ventricular failure. Which of the following assessment findings would the healthcare provider expect to observe?
Pulmonary crackles

ways the kidneys help the body deal with shock
The Kidneys help maintain blood pressure by retaining water, and secreting Renin to activate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Which is/are the common seen side effect/s of organic nitrates?
postural hypotension

How can a myocardial infarction lead to “low stroke volume” type shock?
Loss of the capacity of the ventricles to contract properly

Which of the following is true about malignant hypertension?
Malignant hypertension is extremely high blood pressure that develops rapidly and results in target organ damage.

At the hospital, how soon should you administer percutaneous coronary intervention?
Within 1.5 hours of patient presentation

Which of the following are potential consequences of myocardial iscaemia?
Heart failure, cardiogenic shock, arrythmias and pericarditis are all consequences of myocardial ischaemia. Rheumatic heart disease is not a consequence of myocardial ischaemia.

Which of the following statements about Atherosclerosis is true?
Atherosclerosis involves hardening of the arteries. The initial stages of atherosclerosis involve the formation of stable plaques, which can over time become unstable lesions. Unstable plaques have the potential to decrease blood flow to the myocardium. Atherosclerosis is not a risk factor for coronary artery disease, it is a process in the development of coronary artery disease.

Increased mean arterial blood pressure is commonly due to which of the following two factors?
increased cardiac output and increased peripheral vascular resistance

The diagnostic criteria for Myocardial infarction are:
ST segment elevation on ECG with elevated serum cardiac enzymes.

A patient presents to the emergency department with a blood pressure of 180/130 mmHg, headache, and confusion. Which additional finding is consistent with a diagnosis of hypertensive emergency?

Myocardial infarction involves:
Irreversible myocardial injury

The action of thiazide diuretics is to
Decrease circulating blood volume

What division of the nervous system is predominant in shock?
The sympathetic nervous system

Which of the following statements about hypertension is true?
Primary hypertension is the most common type among hypertensive patients. About 5% of hypertensive patients have hypertension due to other identifiable causes. Regardless of the origin of hypertension, the actual increase in arterial blood pressure is due to an increased peripheral vascular resistance and increased cardiac output.

A woman in her second trimester of pregnancy is diagnosed with preeclampsia. Which of the following statements about preeclampsia will guide the care provided to this patient?
If untreated, preeclampsia may result in foetal growth restriction.

Which of the following could lead to hypovolaemic shock?
Blood loss after a physical trauma

A patient is diagnosed with heart failure and is prescribed digoxin (Lanoxin) and furosemide (Lasix). Before administering the furosemide to the patient, which laboratory result should the healthcare provider to review?
Serum potassium

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