Cancer cell research paper

Cancerous cells are being found more and more frequently in men and women each year. There are two known causes to this phenomenon: the tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. They are mutations that occur in the main cells of the body that ultimately lead to the formation of cancer. A single gene mutation is all that is necessary to drive the cancer cells to grow and divide uncontrollably. As this occurs the body cells go into apoptosis; if the patient does not take the necessary steps for immediate treatment he/she will most likely die since cancer cells rapidly begin to encompass the whole body.

Proto-oncogenes are a group of genes that regulate the function of normal cells in the body, but when mutated cause oncogenes to form; cancerous cells. Proto-oncogenes, when not mutated encode the proteins that are necessary for the function of cell division. They also aid the cells from differentiating and going into cell death. All these steps are necessary for proper human development, but can cause a problem when used in overload. As proto-oncogenes multiply in an excessive amount they form into cancerous cells (oncogenes) which cause rapid cell division, cell differentiation and cell death.

The rapid growth of proto-oncogenes is not the only mechanism that causes oncogenes to become activated, they are also many others. Mutations are one of the many other factors that cause these cancerous cells to form. These may include insertions, deletions, or point mutations in the gene sequences of the proto-oncogenes. This begins to increase transcription and chromosomal copies in the body. Chromosomal translocation of the proto-oncogenes causes the genes to be relocated to a different chromosomal site, this results in higher expression.

In many other cases chromosomal translocation can form a protein product with oncogenic activity, the only way that this can happen is when a second gene binds with the proto-oncogene and moves with it to a different chromosomal site. 2 Mutations are the main reason that cancer cells form in the body. Just one single gene mutation is all that is necessary for this to occur, but it involves several processes. The cell first undergoes several mutations; this increases proto-oncogene function and decreases the production of tumor suppressor genes.

Transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is now occurring at this point. The chromosomes are now starting to be abnormally produced; this alters the gene sequences on the given chromosomes. As the cells grow rapidly and divide uncontrollably they do not respond well to increased chromosome production which leads to even more abnormal changes in chromosome number as the cells continue to divide.

The cells are now at an instable state; this is all due to the oncogenic genes which are the main reason scientists say cancer occurs. Oncogenic genes that fuse with other mutations are the main cause for the growth, division, and survival of the cancerous cells in the body. As the cancer cells begin to take over the body they form large masses of tissue called tumors.

These are very dangerous to a person’s health and need to be treated immediately as they cause the main systems of the body to be altered and release hormones that change the appearance and function of the body. There are two main types of tumors that can form: benign and malignant. Benign, is the more tolerable tumor that stays in one place and does grow at an uncontrollable rate.

This is in contrast to a malignant tumor which is very severe and dangerous. A malignant tumor can either move through the blood vessels and destroy the healthy tissue or the cell can begin to produce new blood vessels on which it feeds on. The result of uncontrollable tumor growth is called metastasis and it is very hard to treat. The spread of these cancer cells that later on form into tumors is most likely due to the adhesion of the oncogenes as they travel throughout the body.

They adhere to certain regions forming cancerous cells then continue to move on repeating the same process over and over, this 3 results in the formation of a massive tumor tissue. Since oncogenes, unlike normal cells do not go through programmed cell death they just continue to grow and divide destroying the body little by little. One form of cancer that results from these tumors is called breast cancer. Men and women can both obtain this type of cancer but it is more commonly found in women. This begins in the breast cells, which are made up of many microscopic cells but as they begin to grow uncontrollably at a fast rate they form into cancerous cells.

This can either occur in the milk duct region of the breasts; the inner lining or the lobules which is the less common form. Invasive breast cancer is more severe as it can travel throughout other parts of the body and spread into the organs and blood stream. The non-invasive type stays in the breast cell regions where it originated but can eventually break out and form into the invasive type. There is no set cure for cancer but treatment is the necessary step a patient should take to try and resolve this issue.

There are several options which include radiation, chemotherapy, and in regards to breast cancer a mastectomy which is when the cancerous part of the breast tissue is surgically removed. Scientists have been researching for years on ways to cure this terrible disease which strikes men and women every year but no set cure has been discovered. This means that cancer patient’s proto-oncogenes that mutate will continue to form into oncogenes. For this reason cancerous cells will continue to grow, divide, and survive in patients unless the oncogene gene can be suppressed in some way. One mechanism could be to somehow reverse the mutated result of a proto-oncogene but no set research has been found for this to occur.

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1. In which phase of mitosis do each of the following occur: a. Centromeres split and chromosomes move toward opposite sides of the cell anaphase WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY …

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